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 Table of Contents 
CASE REPORT
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 153-154  

Poly-resistant Tuberculosis in an HIV-infected Child


Pediatric HIV and TB Clinic, B. J. Wadia Children's Hospital, Mumbai, India

Date of Web Publication20-Dec-2012

Correspondence Address:
Ira Shah
1/B Saguna, 271/B St Francis Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai - 400056
India
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DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.104989

PMID: 24479027

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  Abstract 

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has been reported in India, but has been rarely documented in children. HIV co-infection has led to resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), making treatment even more difficult due to complex drug interactions. Poly-resistant TB is rare in children, especially in HIV-infected children. We report an HIV-infected child who developed poly-resistant TB (resistance to Streptomycin and Isoniazid) after 3 years of completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). His mother had also received ATT 3 years back. We conclude that DR-TB in HIV-infected children should be considered if the child had been treated with ATT in the past or there is contact with adults on second-line ATT therapy.

Keywords: Children, HIV, poly-resistant TB


How to cite this article:
Shah I, Bansal N. Poly-resistant Tuberculosis in an HIV-infected Child. J Fam Med Primary Care 2012;1:153-4

How to cite this URL:
Shah I, Bansal N. Poly-resistant Tuberculosis in an HIV-infected Child. J Fam Med Primary Care [serial online] 2012 [cited 2014 Oct 30];1:153-4. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2012/1/2/153/104989


  Introduction Top


India has the world's highest burden of tuberculosis (TB). In India, the multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence among all patients with TB combined is estimated to be 4.1%. A crude estimate derived from these data is that 4500 − 6000 HIV-infected persons develop MDR-TB annually in India. [1] Diagnosis of any form of TB, including drug-resistant (DR) TB, is more challenging in the presence of HIV disease and together they result in higher case fatality rates. [2]

Poly-drug resistant TB indicates resistance to two or more anti-TB drugs but not to both Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (R) simultaneously. [3] Treatment of DR-TB in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is complex due to the drug interactions. [1] DR-TB in HIV-infected children is difficult to diagnose and rarely reported. We report an HIV-infected child who developed poly-resistant TB.


  Case Report Top


A 3-year-old HIV-infected boy was referred for further management in January 2005. Mother was diagnosed as tuberculous pleural effusion with HIV infection with acid fast bacillus (AFB) seen on sputum examination and was on Ofloxacin (O), INH (H), and Rifampicin (R) for the same. (Details of mother's investigations are not available.) The child was currently asymptomatic. He had oral thrush and herpes simpler in the past. He had been immunized till date. On examination, his weight was 12 kg and height was 86.5 cm. He had cervical adenopathy (non-tender, non-matted) and other systems were normal. Investigations showed positive Mantoux test (20 × 22 mm) and chest X-ray was suggestive of primary complex. His venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, HBsAg, and anti-hepatitis C were negative. He was started on anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) consisting of 2 HRZE + 10 HR (Z = Pyrazinamide, E = Ethambutol). His serial CD 4 counts are depicted in [Table 1]. ATT was stopped in January 2006. He was asymptomatic till June 2007, when we had mild molluscum contagiosum. In February 2009, at the age of 7 years, he was hospitalized with right lower zone pneumonia and his sputum was positive for AFB. He was restarted on ATT in category 2 regime as per WHO. His sputum culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculous (MTB) complex after 6 weeks and sensitivity after another 2 weeks showed resistance to Streptomycin (S) and H. He was then shifted to REZO in May 2009 and ART was started in the same period in view of decreasing CD 4 count, consisting of Zidovudine (AZT), Lamivudine (3TC), and Nevirapine (NVP at 400 mg/m 2 /day). He was alright and chest X-ray normalized in August 2009. Ofloxacin was stopped in August 2009 and he was advised REZ for another 6 months.
Table 1: Serial CD4 counts

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  Discussion Top


In India, MDR-TB is estimated to account for 2.3% [95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.8 − 2.8] of new cases and 17.2% (95% CI: 14.9 − 19.5) of previously treated TB cases. [4] Those at highest risk of DR-TB are in whom prior treatment had failed, cases of relapse, defaulters, and contacts of MDR-TB. [1] Drug resistance is rarely acquired in the pediatric population due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and originates mainly in the adults who are treatment failures or defaulters. Thus, the main method of resistance in children is primary transmission of the resistant bacilli. [5] Our patient had been treated for pulmonary TB in 2005 for 1 year but again developed TB in 2009, which is suggestive of a relapse.

HIV co-infection is considered important in the development of DR-TB by increasing the rates of malabsorption of anti-TB drugs, thus causing treatment failures. Also, HIV increases the rate of DR-TB transmission. [1]

The diagnosis of DR-TB is established by laboratory methods (drug susceptibility tests or DST) which, however, are not available in most resource-limited settings and are difficult to do in children. Treatment of poly-resistant TB varies as per drug resistance pattern and consists of three to four sensitive drugs for six to eighteen months duration. [6] For H and S resistance, as in our patient, the suggested regimen is RZE for 6-9 months, and fluoroquinolone can be added in patients with extensive disease to strengthen the regimen. [6]

Thus, children who had been treated for TB in the past should be screened for drug resistance by DST. This case report emphasizes this fact. This has also been reiterated in our series of children with MDR-TB and partial over extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB in whom we found that over 50% of patients had been treated for TB in the past. [7],[8]


  Conclusion Top


DR-TB in HIV-infected children should be considered if the child has been treated with ATT in the past or there is contact with adults on second-line ATT therapy. Poly-resistant TB is rare in children, especially in HIV-infected children.

 
  References Top

1.Wells CD, Cegielski JP, Nelson LJ, Laserson KF, Holtz TH, Finlay A, et al. HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: The perfect storm. J Infect Dis 2007;196 Suppl 1:S86-107.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Andrews JR, Shah NS, Gandhi N, Moll T, Friedland G; Tugela Ferry Care and Research (TF CARES) Collaboration. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: Implications for the HIV epidemic and antiretroviral therapy rollout in South Africa. J Infect Dis 2007;196 Suppl 3:S482-90.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Lee JH, Chang JH. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary referral teaching hospital of Korea. Korean J Intern Med 2001;16:173-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.World Health Organization (WHO) Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): 2010 global report on surveillance and response (WHO/HTM/TB/2010.3). World Health Organization. Geneva: 2010.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Newton SM, Brent AJ, Anderson S, Whittaker E, Kampmann B. Paediatric Tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:498-510.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.California Department of Public Health; Francis J. Curry national tuberculosis center. Drug-Resistant tuberculosis: A survival guide for clinicians. 2 nd ed. San Francisco: Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Shah I, Chilkar S. Clinical profile of drug resistant tuberculosis in children. Indian Pediatrics Available on URL: http://www.indianpediatrics.net/RB%2010.06.2012/RB-60.pdf  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Shah I, Rahangdale A. Partial Extensively Drug Resistance (XDR) tuberculosis in children - Report of 3 Cases. Indian Pediatr 2011;48:977-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    



 
 
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Abstract
Introduction
Case Report
Discussion
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