Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 4
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 165-166  

Quality of Water Distribution System in a Rural Area of Puducherry, India


Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

Date of Web Publication20-Dec-2012

Correspondence Address:
S Ganesh Kumar
Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry -06
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.104995

PMID: 24479033

Get Permissions


How to cite this article:
Ganesh Kumar S, Roy G, Kar SS, Saurabh S. Quality of Water Distribution System in a Rural Area of Puducherry, India. J Fam Med Primary Care 2012;1:165-6

How to cite this URL:
Ganesh Kumar S, Roy G, Kar SS, Saurabh S. Quality of Water Distribution System in a Rural Area of Puducherry, India. J Fam Med Primary Care [serial online] 2012 [cited 2014 Dec 18];1:165-6. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2012/1/2/165/104995

Dear Editor,

Sanitation is an important public health issue in India as is worldwide. [1] As previously showed, bacteriological pollution of drinking water supplies caused diarrheal illness in Bholakpur, India. This was due to the infiltration of contaminated water through cross connection, leakage points, and back siphoning. [2] Despite effective treatment of drinking water, microbes can enter water utility distribution systems. [3] The major causes for water quality deterioration are interactions between the pipe wall and the water, and reactions within the bulk water itself. During the flow of water through the distribution system, it undergoes various physical, chemical and biological changes, which results in change of water quality. [4] The sources of water quality degradation during distribution increases the rate of gastrointestinal illnesses. [4] It also depends on the water flow rate, finished water quality, pipe materials and deposited materials like iron, sand and others. Studies on the conditions related to quality of water distribution systems at various sites that includes tap, pipes, basement and drainage system in the houses of rural areas are limited in India. It is important to understand the problems of water distribution system so that appropriate intervention measures can be adopted at various levels.

A cross-sectional study was conducted during June 2011 in rural field practice service area of JIPMER, Puducherry. By taking 50% as good condition of the quality of water distribution and precision at 25% level, minimum sample size required will be 64. A total of 102 houses were randomly covered and information regarding conditions of taps, basement, pipe and drainage system of house were collected using a self-structured questionnaire and classified into three grades; good, average and poor based on the quality of the system. Satisfaction related to the quality, quantity and frequency of water supplied and episodes of diarrhea in the past one month were also collected. Data was entered in SPSS version 11 and analyzed by using proportion.

Our study showed that 52-85% of the houses have average and poor water distribution system [Table 1]. Pipes are in good and average condition compared to others and all the households are reported to be satisfied with quality, quantity and frequency of water supply. A total of five episodes of diarrhea were reported from five families where all the 5 families had poor drainage and basement, 4 had poor tap connection and 3 had poor pipe quality.{Table 1}

The study highlights the basic picture of water distribution system in a rural area which is important for the present context in developing countries like India. Our study showed that majority of parts of water distribution system is average and poor in this area with frequent episodes of waterborne diseases. Contaminants from the soil surrounding drinking water distribution systems are thought to not enter the drinking water when sufficient internal pressure is maintained. Pressure transients may cause short intervals of negative pressure, and the soil near drinking water pipes often contains fecal material due to the proximity of sewage lines, so that a pressure event may cause intrusion of pathogens and thus effecting the water quality. [5] The temporal release of iron, copper and lead could be predicted with knowledge of water quality and pipe material. Residual dissipation can be described with knowledge of pipe material, diameter, quality, temperature and transit time. Control of biological nitrification and stabilization is based on residual maintenance. [6]

One of the primary duties of the healthcare providers is to look for these defects in water distribution system in the causation of waterborne diseases. Household members need to be educated on water-related health risks and adoption of technological changes in improving the water distribution system. A comprehensive, coordinated research strategy on behavioral aspects regarding human beliefs, values and decision-making process is needed to bring about the change. It is concluded that water distribution system should be improved through regular inspection and corrective measures with the political commitment, regulatory action and community participation.

 
  References Top

1.Kumar SG, Jayarama S. Issues related to sanitation failure in India and future perspective. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2009;13:104.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.Abdul RM, Mutnuri L, Dattatreya PJ, Mohan DA. Assessment of drinking water quality using ICP-MS and microbiological methods in the Bholakpur area, Hyderabad, India. Environ Monit Assess 2012;184:1581-92.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Marciano-Cabral F, Jamerson M, Kaneshiro ES. Free-living amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium in tap water supplied by a municipal drinking water utility in the USA. J Water Health 2010;8:71-82.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Besner MC, Gauthier V, Barbeau B, Millette R, Chapleau R, Prevost M. Understanding distribution system water quality. J Am Water Works Assoc 2001;93:101-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Teunis PF, Xu M, Fleming KK, Yang J, Moe CL, Lechevallier MW. Enteric virus infection risk from intrusion of sewage into a drinking water distribution network. Environ Sci Technol 2010;44:8561-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Taylor JS, Dietz JD, Randall AA, Hong SK, Norris CD, Mulford LA et al. Effects of blending on distribution system water quality. Published by AWWA Research foundation and American water Works Association, Orlando, Florida, 2005.  Back to cited text no. 6
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]JFamMedPrimaryCare_2012_1_2_165_104995_t1.jpg



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed465    
    Printed44    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded103    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal