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 Table of Contents 
CASE REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 132-134  

Bloody tears: A rare presentation of munchausen syndrome case report and review


Consultant Physician, Allergy and Immunology, Prince Hashem Hospital, Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan

Date of Web Publication27-Feb-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mansour F Karadsheh
Department of Medicine, King Hussein Medical Center, Royal Medical Services, Amman
Jordan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.152271

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  Abstract 

We report a 16-year-old Jordanian female who presented with bleeding from both eyes of sudden onset. Her physical examination was remarkable for blood pouring from both eyes, and normal otherwise examination including eye and nose examination. During hospital stay, it was noted that "bleeding" occurred only when alone in the room. She later was seen to prick her finger tips of the left hand with her right hand using a hair clip. She denied any psychological problems, and later did not show for follow-up. Munchausen syndrome as a cause of bleeding is discussed.

Keywords: Bloody tears, factitious disorders, Munchausen syndrome


How to cite this article:
Karadsheh MF. Bloody tears: A rare presentation of munchausen syndrome case report and review. J Family Med Prim Care 2015;4:132-4

How to cite this URL:
Karadsheh MF. Bloody tears: A rare presentation of munchausen syndrome case report and review. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 19];4:132-4. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2015/4/1/132/152271


  Introduction Top


Munchausen syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of many disorders. It should thought of when a "difficult to explain" presentation of a patient is noted. Hemolacria is one of these diagnostic difficulties, and we report a case of bloody tears in a young Jordanian patient.


  Case Report Top


A 16-year-old female, school student, presented to Prince Hashem Hospital in Zarq governorate in Jordan in November 2009, with the complaint of blood in the tears of 1-day duration.

Review of the patient's history revealed that she was normal until 1 day prior to her presentation when she started to note blood coming from both eyes admixed with the tears; it was fresh in color with no associated pain or change in vision, or aggravated by itching. Her physical examination showed a normal-looking young girl, with streaks of blood from both fornices. General examination was normal; with no signs of anemia, dilated vessels, or bleeding from other sites, including the nose, gums, or skin; and no hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Ophthalmic examination was also normal, with no evidence of conjunctival injury or obvious site of bleeding. Her investigations, including full blood count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time were normal, too.

The patient was hospitalized for observation; of note was that, the bleeding occurred mainly, almost only, when there were no people around her. Later, she was moved to a bed nearer to the nurses' station, with instructions to call the on call doctor when bleeding is noted.

When bleeding was noted, the medical team was rushed to the patient's bed; they noticed that blood is streaking from both eyes, and also on her cheeks in a linear pattern; inspection of the patient's hands [Figure 1] showed puncture sites on the tips of her left hand, but none on the right hand; and a hair clip was beside the patient's bed.
Figure 1: Puncture sites of left tips of fingers with right being clean

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The patient was confronted with these finding; and later she admitted using the hair clip to puncture her left side finger tips using the clip with her right hand. She denied any gain that she was aiming at.

The patient was discharged from hospital the next day, and was scheduled for follow-up in 2 weeks; but failed to attend the appointment. No other episodes of bleeding were reported afterwards as per hospital records.


  Discussion Top


Hemolacria or bloody tears is a very rare entity, that has many causes, including tumors [1] conjunctivitis, trauma, retrograde epistaxis, inflammatory polyps, hemangiomas, [2] and chloromas [3] to mention a few; but Munchausen syndrome can be seen with ophthalmic manifestations [4] and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when ocular abnormalities cannot be explained after a thorough evaluation. [5],[6]

Bleeding from any site in the humans is an alarming symptom, and always attracts the attention of healthcare workers to request further investigations and leading to admission to hospitals; this is a reason why patients with factitious disorders [7],[8] present with bleeding from different sites including the gastrointestinal, [9] respiratory, [10] as well as unusual sites; [11] our patient and many others from review of the literature had a similar presentation.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) [12] requires that the following three criteria be met for the diagnosis of factitious disorder: (1) Intentional production or feigning of physical or psychological signs or symptoms, (2) motivation for the behavior is to assume the sick role, and (3) absence of external incentives for the behavior (e.g. economic gain, avoiding legal responsibility, and improving physical well-being, as in malingering). [12],[13]

The DSM-IV-TR recognizes the following three types of factitious disorder: (1) Factitious disorder with predominantly psychological signs and symptoms, (2) factitious disorder with predominantly physical signs and symptoms, and (3) factitious disorder with combined psychological and physical signs and symptoms.

A fourth type, factitious disorder not otherwise specified, includes those disorders with factitious symptoms that do not meet the criteria for factitious disorder. The DSM-IV-TR places factitious disorder by proxy (i.e. Munchausen syndrome by proxy) into this category, defining it as "the intentional production or feigning of physical or psychological signs or symptoms in another person who is under the individual's care for the purpose of indirectly assuming the sick role". [14]

It has been estimated that 3-5% of physician-patient encounters involve factitious disease. [15] Patients with factitious diseases are extremely difficult to recognize because they do not appear different from patients with authentic causes of similar symptoms, because their psychiatric abnormalities are not appreciated, and because doctors and nurses have a low index of suspicion. Since patients with factitious disease present a false medical history, their physicians prescribe unnecessary procedures and therapies that may result in iatrogenic disease. In many cases, damage to these patients from doctors' actions exceeds the harm resulting from the patients' self-induced illness. [6],[16]

Many cases from Jordan [17] and other Arab countries [18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23] have been reported; with emphasis on the culture in each country and the influence of sociocultural dynamics, that leads to this behavior, including poverty, movement of population as well as religious and cultural influences.

To help keep factitious disease in clinical perspective, one of the case studies involves the antithesis of factitious disease, where a patient was mistakenly diagnosed as having psychogenic pain when in fact the symptoms were caused by an overlooked physical disease. [24] Better knowledge of the clinical features of factitious disease might have prevented the disastrous outcome.

Further researches across cultures are needed for untangling psychological, social, and cultural perspectives of factitious disorders, which may finally lead to the development of novel culturally sensitive treatment strategies.


  Conclusion Top


Recognition of this psychiatric disease is not only important for correct medical diagnosis and treatment, but also essential in protecting the patients from unnecessary invasive and aggressive medical procedures, and saves the healthcare facilities' money and resources by sparing hospital beds, resources, and money.

 
  References Top

1.
Azari AA, Kanavi MR, Saipe N, Lee V, Lucarelli M, Potter HD, et al. Transitional cell carcinoma of the lacrimal sac presenting with bloody tears. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131:689-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ozcan KM, Ozdaº T, Baran H, Ozdogan F, Dere H. Hemolacria: Case report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013;77:137-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Shah SB, Reichstein DA, Lally SE, Shields CL. Persistent bloody tears as the initial manifestation of conjunctival chloroma associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:991-92.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Miller NR. Functional neuro-ophthalmology. Handb Clin Neurol 2011;102:493-513.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tüfekçi Ö, Gözmen S, Yılmaz ª, Hilkay Karapınar T, Çetin B, Burak Dursun O, et al. A case with unexplained bleeding from multiple sites: Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2011;28:439-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Salvo M, Pinna A, Milia P, Carta F. Ocular Munchausen syndrome resulting in bilateral blindness. Eur J Ophthalmol 2006;16:654-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Girolami A, Allemand E, Berti De Marinis G, Pietrogrande F. Bleeding in Munchausen syndrome. Gazz Med Ital 2012;171:483-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sridharan S, Shukla D, Mehta R, Oswal R. Munchausen syndrome masquerading as bleeding disorder in a group of pediatric patients. Indian J Psychol Med 2011;33:86-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
9.
Hafiz AM, Mahboob H, Jan F. Factitious gastrointestinal bleeding: A case of munchausen syndrome. Internet J Internal Med 2009;8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Patenaude B, Zitsch R 3 rd , Hirschi SD. Blood--but not bleeding--at a tracheotomy site: A case of Munchausen's syndrome. Ear Nose Throat J 2006;85:677-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bjornson CL, Kirk VG. Munchausen's syndrome presenting as hemoptysis in a 12-year-old girl. Can Respir J 2001;8:439-42.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4 th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). American Psychiatric Association; 2000. p. 513.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Omaya O, Paltoo C, Greengold J. Somatoform disorders. Am Fam Physician 2007;76:1333-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Criddle L. Monsters in the closet: Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Crit Care Nurse 2010;30:46-55.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Savino AC, Fordtran JS. Factitious disease: Clinical lessons from case studies at Baylor University Medical Center. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2006;19:195-208.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Lin JL, Servat JJ, Bernardino CR, Goldberg RA, Levin F. Bilateral corneal perforations and autoproptosis as self-induced manifestations of ocular Munchausen's syndrome. Orbit 2012;31:252-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Akasheh F. Vesico-vaginal fistula following the use of vacuum extractor. Postgrad Med J 1966;42:793-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Bhargava D, Al-Abri R, Rizvi SG, Al Okbi MH, Bhargava K, Al-Adawi S. Phenomenology and outcome of factitious disorders in otolaryngology clinic in Oman. Int J Psychiatry Med 2007;37:229-40.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Al-Saadoon M, Al-Sharbati M, El Nour I, Al-Said B. Child maltreatment: Types and effects: Series of six cases from a university hospital in Oman. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2012;12:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Almuneef M, Al-Eissa M. Preventing child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready? Ann Saudi Med 2011;31:635-40.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Al- Eissa Y. The battered child syndrome: Does it exist in Saudi Arabia? Saud Med J 1991;12:129-33.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Al-Habeeb TA. Factitious disorder in Saudi Arabia: A report of two cases. J Family Community Med 1999;6:49-52.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Qureshi N, Al-Habeeb T, Abdelgadir M, Al-Gamdi Y. Factitious disorders: Sociocultural and clinical factors among saudi patients. AJP 1999;10.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Dyer C. GMC must consider case against pediatricians who suspected parents of fabricating child's illness. BMJ 2006;332:1110.  Back to cited text no. 24
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]


This article has been cited by
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[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
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