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 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 522-525  

Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India


Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication29-Dec-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohd Maroof
Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.222055

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. Objectives: To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study done at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A sample of 225 was drawn from 1018 elderly population aged 60 years and above using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Locomotor problems were assessed using the criteria used by National Sample Survey Organization. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to test relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population was 25.8%. Locomotor problems were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status whereas no significant association with literacy status and marital status was observed. Conclusion: The study concluded that approximately one-fourth of the elderly population suffered from locomotor problems. The sociodemographic factors related to locomotor problems needs to be addressed properly to help them lead an independent and economically productive life.

Keywords: Elderly, locomotor problems, rural


How to cite this article:
Maroof M, Ahmad A, Khalique N, Ansari M A. Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India. J Family Med Prim Care 2017;6:522-5

How to cite this URL:
Maroof M, Ahmad A, Khalique N, Ansari M A. Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Oct 15];6:522-5. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2017/6/3/522/222055


  Introduction Top


Elderly contributes to 8.3% of the Indian population.[1] Old age suffers from various health problems due to physical and physiological decline in body functions. Locomotor problems concern the health policy makers as it deprives the elderly population to play an active role in the society. They become an economic burden and become dependent on others to seek health care, for activities of daily living, and other routine activities. A survey done by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) showed that 15% of the elderly population in Rural Uttar Pradesh suffered from locomotor disability.[2] A study carried out in Rural West Bengal revealed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal system problem in elderly population was 29.90%.[3] The prevalence of musculoskeletal system problems among the elderly population was found to be 30.20% in the study carried out in Rural Mysore.[4] A large scale sample survey reported that 63.70% elderly suffered from locomotor disability.[5] A study done in New Delhi showed that 4.80% of the elderly suffered from locomotor disability.[6] The literature review shows that a substantial proportion of elderly population suffers from locomotor problems. However, previous researches did not point out the relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors, and only few studies have been conducted in North India. This study was aimed to bridge the gaps in previous researches; the rural area was chosen as most of the elderly population in India resides in rural area. Therefore, the study was conducted with the objectives to find the prevalence of locomotor problem among rural elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was a community-based observational cross-sectional study carried out among elderly population residing at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh. The study was done for 1 year from July 2013 to June 2014. It was a part of large study in which five health problems of the elderly population, namely, cataract, refractive error, locomotor problems, hearing loss, depression were taken for study. Pilot study was done to get baseline information about these health problems. The results of pilot study were not included in the final analysis.

Sample size calculation

Hearing loss (15%) was found to be least prevalent among the above-said problems. Thus, it was taken for the sample size calculation as shown under:

n = Z2p (100 − p)/l2

For confidence interval = 95%, Z = 1.96

n = (1.96)2 P (100 − p)/l2, q = 100 − p

n ~ 4pq/l2

p = Prevalence of hearing problems = 15%

q = 100 – P = 85

Absolute precision = 5%

Substituting the values-(4 × 15 × 85) ÷52

= 204 + 10% nonresponse

= 204 + 20

= 224 ~ 225

Therefore, 225 elderly were included in the study from a total of 1018 elderly population using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size.

Inclusion criteria

Individuals aged 60 years and above.

Those individuals who gave consent.

Exclusion criteria

Individuals <60 years.

Individuals who did not give consent.

Severely ill or moribund individuals.

Operational definitions

Elderly

The World Health Organization defines older people as those individuals above the age of 60 years.[7]

Locomotor disability

A person with (a) loss or lack of normal ability to execute distinctive activities associated with the movement of self and objects from place to place and (b) physical deformities, other than those involving the hand or leg or both, regardless of whether the same caused loss or lack of normal movement of body – was considered as disabled with locomotor disability.[2]

The data were collected using predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Informed verbal consent was taken from each individual. The study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Chi-square test was used to find the relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


Sociodemographic profile of the study population

[Table 1] depicts the sociodemographic characteristics of the study population. It was observed that majority of the elderly included in the study were of age 60–69 years (61.30%) followed by 70–79 years (25.30%), 80 years and above (13.40%). The sex compositions revealed that majority of elderly were females (58.70%). As per literacy status, it was observed that the proportion of illiterates were higher (66.70%) than the literates (33.30%). Currently married were found to be in higher proportion (53.30%) as compared to the widow (46.70%) in the study population. As per the working status working elderly (50.70%) were almost equivalent to the nonworking elderly (49.30%).
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of the study population (n=225)

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Prevalence of locomotor problems and its related sociodemographic factors

The prevalence of locomotor problems in the study population was 25.80%. [Table 2] depicts that sociodemographic factor related with the locomotor problems. It was observed that the prevalence of locomotor problems among the study population was significantly associated with age. The prevalence was highest among elderly aged 80 years and above (56.70%) followed by elderly aged 70–79 years (13.60%) and elderly aged 60–69 years (16.70%). It was observed that there was a significant association between gender and prevalence of locomotor problems. The prevalence of locomotor problems was significantly higher among elderly females (32.60%) as compared to elderly males (16.10%). It was found that the prevalence of locomotor problems was significantly associated with working status. The prevalence of locomotor problems was significantly higher in nonworking elderly (33.30%) as compared to working elderly (18.40%). It was observed that the prevalence of locomotor problems was higher in widowed (31.40%) than the currently married elderly (20.80%), but the difference was not statistically significant. It was seen that the prevalence of locomotor problems was higher in illiterate elderly (28.70%) as against the literate elderly (20%); the difference was not statistically significant.
Table 2: Distribution of locomotor problems according to sociodemographic factors (n=225)

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  Discussion Top


This study was a part of larger cross-sectional study conducted in rural field practice areas of Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. The prevalence of locomotor problems observed in this study was 25.8% that was significantly associated with age, gender and working status; however, no significant association with marital status and literacy status was found in this study.

The other studies showed higher prevalence than the present study such as the study done in Rural Tamil Nadu showed that the prevalence of locomotor problems were 39.30% in the elderly population.[8] In a study conducted in Rural Andhra Pradesh, it was observed that 39.42% of the elderly population had locomotive disorders.[9] A study carried out in New Delhi revealed that the prevalence of locomotor disability were 39% in the study population.[10] The prevalence of locomotor problems was reported to be 32% in a study done in Bagalkot.[11] A study carried out in an urban slum of Central India revealed that the prevalence of locomotor system problems in the study population was 47.75%.[12] In a study done in the urban area of Gujarat, the prevalence of locomotor problem was reported to be 48.60% among the elderly population.[13] A study carried out in rural Varanasi showed that the prevalence of locomotor problems in the elderly population was 57.80%.[14] A large scale sample survey reported that 63.70% elderly suffered from locomotor disability.[5]

The study done by some researchers showed lesser prevalence than the present study such as the study done in rural part of South India observed that the prevalence of locomotor disability was 7.50%.[15] A survey done by NSSO showed that 15% of the elderly population in rural Uttar Pradesh suffered from locomotor disability.[2] A study conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai revealed that the prevalence of locomotor disability was 15.23% among the study population.[16] In a study done in Malaysia, the prevalence of locomotor disability was found to be 20.20%.[17] A study carried out in Rural Mau showed that the prevalence of locomotor disability was 2.78% among the elderly population.[18] The prevalence of locomotor disability was reported to be 4.80% among study population in study done in New Delhi.[6]

The present study showed that prevalence of locomotor problems was significantly related with age. Similarly, the study done by Odding et al. showed that locomotor disability was significantly related with age.[19]

The current study highlighted that elderly females had significantly higher prevalence of locomotor problems as compared to elderly males. Similar findings were reported by other studies such as study done by Odding et al. revealed that locomotor disability was significantly higher among elderly females than the elderly males.[19] A study done in Rural Tamil Nadu showed that the prevalence of locomotor problems was significantly higher in elderly females as compared to elderly males.[8] In a study done in rural Tamil Nadu, it was observed that elderly females had a higher prevalence of locomotor disability as than elderly males.[20] However, other studies showed a different result than the present study such as the study done in the urban area of Gujarat the prevalence of locomotor problem was not significantly related to gender.[13] A study carried out in rural Mau showed that the prevalence of locomotor disability was significantly higher in elderly males as compared to elderly males.[18]


  Conclusion Top


The study revealed that around one-fourth of the elderly population in rural area was suffering from locomotor problems that were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status. Therefore, rehabilitation services, as well as a screening of the elderly to detect locomotor problems, should be carried out to provide early intervention, to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable elderly population.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Census of India. Population Composition. SRS Statistical Report. Ch. 2. Govt. of India; 2013. Available from: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/vital_statistics/SRS_Reports_2013.html. [Last accessed on 2016 Feb 08].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Disabled Persons in India Report. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) 58th Round (July-December 2002), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India; December 2003 Report No: 485. Available from: http://www.mospi.nic.in/rept%20_%20pubn/485_final.pdf. [Last Cited on 2015 Oct 31].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Karmakar PR, Chattopadhyay A. A study on morbidity pattern and care seeking behavior of elderly in a rural area of West Bengal, India. Int J Basic Appl Med Sci 2012;2:221-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shraddha K, Prashantha B, Prakash B. Study on morbidity pattern among elderly in urban population of Mysore, Karnataka, India. Int J Med Biomed Res 2012;1:215-23.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rahman MH. Socio-economic Inequality in the Occurrence of Disability in India: Evidence from a Large Scale Sample Survey; 01 January, 2013. Available from: https://www.papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Data_Integrity_Notice.cfm?abid=2334265. [Last accessed on 2016 Feb 08].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dey AB, Soneja S, Nagarkar KM, Jhingan HP. Evaluation of the health and functional status of older Indians as a prelude to the development of a health programme. Natl Med J India 2001;14:135-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Health and Elderly Report. World Health Organization; 1989. Technical Report Series No. 779. Available from: http://www.apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/39521/1/WHO_TRS_779.pdf. [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 20].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Piramanayagam A, Bayapareddy N, Pallavi M, Madhavi E, Nagarjuna Reddy N, et al. A cross-sectional study of the morbidity pattern among the elderly people: South India. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2013;2:372-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Yerpude PN, Jogdand KS, Jogdand MS. A cross-sectional study of health problems and health – Seeking behavior of aged population from rural area of South India. Int J Health Sci Res 2014;4:29-32.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sulania A, Khandekar J, Nagesh S. Burden and correlates of disability and functional impairment in an urban community. Int J Med Public Health 2015;5:82-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
  [Full text]  
11.
Mannapur B, Kulkarni K, Kalasker PS. Study of health problems and health related social factors in geriatric population at UHC area of S N Medical College, Bagalkot. Dent J Evol Med Sci 2013;2:1056-62.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Singh JP, Singh S, Kasturwar NB, Hassan A. Geriatric morbidity profile in an urban slum, Central India. Indian J Community Health 2013;25:164-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Bhatt R, Gadhvi MS, Sonaliya KN, Solanki A, Nayak H. An epidemiological study of the morbidity pattern among the elderly population in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Natl J Community Med 2011;2:233-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Shankar R, Tondon J, Gambhir IS, Tripathi CB. Health status of elderly population in rural area of Varanasi district. Indian J Public Health 2007;51:56-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
15.
Swarnalatha N. Prevalence and determinants of disabilities in rural elderly in Chittoor district, Andhra. Int J Curr Res Rev 2013;5:79-83.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Padhyegurjar SB, Padhyegurjar MS. Cross-sectional study of locomotor disabilities in urban slum area of Mumbai. Natl J Community Med 2011;2:492-3.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Osman A, Rampal KG. A study of locomotor disabilities in a Malay Community in Kuala Selangor. Med J Malaysia 1989;44:69-74.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]    
18.
Srivastava DK, Khan JA, Pandey S, Pandey R, Shah H. Prevalence of physical disability in rural population of district Mau of Uttar Pradesh, India during May 2007. Glob J Med Public Health 2012;1:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Odding E, Valkenburg HA, Stam HJ, Hofman A. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam Study. Eur J Epidemiol 2001;17:1033-41.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.
Sowmiya KR, Kumar PG, Nagarani. A study on prevalence and correlates of functional disability among the elderly in rural Tamil Nadu. Int J Med Res Rev 2015;3:430-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    



 
 
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