World Rural Health Conference
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 932
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 91-96  

Assessment of vaccine coverage and associated factors among children in urban agglomerations of Kochi, Kerala, India


1 Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Kaloor Urban Health Centre, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India

Date of Web Publication31-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aswathy Sreedevi
Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Ponekkara. P O, Kochi, Kerala - 682 041
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_276_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Context: Urban population in India is growing exponentially. The public sector urban health delivery system has so far been limited in its reach and is far from adequate. Aims: This study aims to estimate routine immunization coverage and associated factors among children (12–23 months and 60–84 months) in the urban Kochi Metropolitan Area of Kerala. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kochi Metropolitan area. Materials and Methods: A cluster sampling technique was used to collect data on immunization status from 310 children aged between 12 and 23 months and 308 children aged between 60 and 84 months. Statistical Analysis: Crude coverage details for each vaccine were estimated using percentages and confidence intervals. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with immunization coverage. Results: Among the children aged 12–23 months, 89% (95% CI 85.5%-92.5%) were fully immunized, 10% were partially immunized, and 1% unimmunized. Less than 10 years of schooling among mothers (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.20–4.81) and living in a nuclear family (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.06–3.14) were determinants associated with partial or unimmunization of children as per multivariate analysis. The coverage of individual vaccines was found to decrease after 18 months from 90% to 75% at 4–5 years for Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT) booster. Bivariate analysis found lower birth order and belonging to the Muslim religion as significant factors for this decrease. Conclusion: Education of the mother and nuclear families emerged as areas of vulnerability in urban immunization coverage. Inadequate social support and competing priorities with regard to balancing work and home probably lead to delay or forgetfulness in vaccination. Therefore, a locally contextualized comprehensive strategy with strengthening of the primary health system is needed to improve the immunization coverage in urban areas.

Keywords: Children, immunization coverage, Kerala, urban area


How to cite this article:
Joy TM, George S, Paul N, Renjini B A, Rakesh P S, Sreedevi A. Assessment of vaccine coverage and associated factors among children in urban agglomerations of Kochi, Kerala, India. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:91-6

How to cite this URL:
Joy TM, George S, Paul N, Renjini B A, Rakesh P S, Sreedevi A. Assessment of vaccine coverage and associated factors among children in urban agglomerations of Kochi, Kerala, India. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 18];8:91-6. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2019/8/1/91/251157




  Introduction Top


Urban population in India has been growing exponentially over the last few decades and now constitutes approximately one-third of the total population. The population projections indicate that about 800 million Indians will be living in the cities by 2045.[1]

Unlike rural areas that have a dedicated public healthcare system, urban areas in many states of India do not have such structures. The public-sector urban health delivery system has so far been limited in its reach and far from adequate.[2],[3] In 2013, India introduced the National Urban Health Mission to focus on urban health. The mission aimed to provide access to basic healthcare facilities to the urban poor.[3]

Kerala, a state in southern India, with a population of 34.1 million, has made impressive improvements in indicators of health and social development, such as the human development index (0.84), life expectancy at birth (75 years), infant mortality rate (06/1000 live births), sex ratio (1084 females to 1000 males), and female literacy rates (92.07%), comparable to those of many developed countries.[4] Nearly half of the population in Kerala now lives in urban areas, a higher percentage compared to most states in India.[5]

There has been a surge in vaccine preventable disease cases reported from Kerala in recent years.[6] Vaccine-preventable diseases have higher potential transmission rates in urban areas than that in rural areas. While disease transmission can be interrupted with a lower immunization coverage rate in less densely populated rural areas, the coverage rate will need to be much higher in urban areas to achieve the same effect.[7] Moreover, significant disparities exist in immunization coverage in urban areas with lower coverage observed in the urban poor in many countries.[8] There are limited systematic studies describing vaccination coverage specific to urban areas in Kerala.

Assessing immunization coverage is essential for planning immunization programmes, identifying vulnerable groups that require targeting of increased resources, and predicting likely vaccine-preventable disease epidemics. Hence, the objectives of the current study were to estimate the level of routine immunization coverage as per the Universal Immunisation programme (UIP) among children in Kochi Metropolitan Area of Ernakulum district, and to identify the factors associated with it.


  Materials and Methods Top


Kochi Metropolitan Area (Kochi Urban Agglomeration) which falls under Kochi and Kanayannur Taluks of Ernakulum district consists of Municipal Corporation of Kochi, 9 municipalities, 14 Panchayats, and parts of 4 Panchayats. It has a population of 2,117,990, making it the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. Kochi Metropolitan Area is referred to as the economic capital of Kerala and is recognized as one of the major industrial cities in India. The average literacy rate is 96.3%. Around 5% of the population resides in slums. Children less than 6 years constitute 9% of the total population. Infant mortality rate is consistently reported at less than 6 per 1000 live births.[9]

A cross-sectional study was conducted during August and October 2017. Children aged between 12 and 23 months and 60 and 84 months (5–7 years) were included in the study, irrespective of the residence status. Children without valid date of birth records and where mothers/primary caregivers were not available were excluded.

With an anticipated coverage among 12–23 months as 90% with 5% absolute precision at 95% confidence, an effective sample size of 139 was required. With an Intra cluster correlation (ICC) of 0.13, with 10 children per cluster, effective sample size was multiplied with a design effect of 2.2 to obtain a total sample size of 306.[10] Thus, 31 clusters were chosen. The primary sampling unit (PSU) was ward/division (lowest political division). Thirty-one PSUs were selected by probability proportionate to sampling technique from a total of 433 PSUs. A map of the selected cluster was obtained and its geographic centre was visited, and then a random direction was chosen by “spin a bottle” method. In the chosen direction, the first household was selected randomly in each cluster and every next household was studied in a sequence till 10 eligible respondents in both selected age groups (12–23 months and 5–7 years) were included in the study. The parent of the child/available reliable caregiver were interviewed and the information provided was corroborated with the mother and child protection (MCP) card/Immunization card of the child.

A pretested, structured questionnaire was used to collect information from mothers regarding sociodemographic parameters, status of immunization of their child, and reasons for noncompliance. Data collection was preceded by a training session to medical interns who conducted the interview. Age was confirmed by birth certificate or immunization card or delivery discharge summary details, and when not available, by asking the mother. Socioeconomic status was assessed using Kerala's nine-point poverty scale index.[11] The child was considered as immunized or not based on the immunization/MCP card. For those without an immunization card, information from the mother/caregiver in the family stating that the child has been immunized was considered.

Public health sector provides pentavalent vaccine (Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT), Hemophilus influenza b (Hib), and hepatitis B) in Kerala. Fully immunized was defined as per the 1998 World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, i.e., receipt of one dose of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine, three doses of DPT and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) vaccines, and one dose of measles vaccine by children in the age group of 12–23 months. No vaccination/immunization was defined as failure of a child to receive even a single dose of the vaccines listed above. Partial/incomplete vaccination was defined as children in receipt of any one of the vaccine doses mentioned above but not all. Complete immunization was defined as a child between 5 and 7 years who has received, in addition to the above vaccines, two booster doses of DPT and Polio.

The study was conducted after obtaining ethical approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC). Informed written consent was also obtained from the respondent. The collected data were numerically coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2007, and then analyzed using SPSS Inc. Version 18.0., Released 2009, PASW Statistics for Windows, (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Crude coverage details for each vaccine were estimated using percentages and confidence intervals. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with immunization coverage.


  Results Top


Immunization and sociodemographic details of 310 children between the age group 12 and 23 months and 308 children between the age group of 5 and 7 years were collected. Sociodemographic details of the participants are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of children

Click here to view


Among the children aged 12–23 months, 79.4% reported that they got a government immunization card (MCP card), whereas 3.2% reported that they had never possessed any immunization card. Of the children aged 12–23 months, 89% (95% CI 85.5%- 92.5%) were fully immunized, 10% were partially immunized, and 1% unimmunized.

Coverage of individual vaccines among children 12–23 months were as follows: BCG 98.7%, OPV zero dose 98.7%, hepatitis B zero dose 97.7%, DPT 1 99%, DPT 2 98.7%, DPT 3 98.4%, and measles 95.8%. Vitamin A first dose was reported to be received by 95.2% of the children.

The most commonly cited reason for not completing immunization was postponement due to illness to the child (20.8%) and personal reasons (17.6%), fear of adverse effects (14.7%), and busy parents (11.7%). Mother's education less than 10th standard (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.39–6.61, adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.20–4.81) and living in a nuclear family (OR 2.4 95%, CI 1.19–5.02; adjusted OR 1.72 95% CI 1.06–3.14)) were found to be factors associated with partially/unimmunized status of children aged 12–23 months. Results of the univariate analysis among children aged 12–23 months are expressed in [Table 2].
Table 2: Factors associated with immunization status of children 12.23 months (n=310)

Click here to view


Complete immunization coverage among children aged 5–7 years was only 72% and 28% of the children had missed some doses. One-fourth (25%) of the children had not taken booster doses at 4–5 years. Coverage at 18 months was 92.9%. Coverage of individual vaccines was above 90% till 18 months of age. However, the coverage of DPT booster at 4–5 years was only 75%. Lower birth order (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.96) and belonging to Muslim religion (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.28–5.26) were found to be factors associated with incomplete immunization status among children aged 5–7 years [Table 3].
Table 3: Factors associated with immunization status of children 5.6 years (n=308)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The main features of the National Urban Health mission include city-specific planning, rationalizing the available manpower and resources, and partnering with private providers and NGOs for filling gaps and improving access and quality health services. These health reforms include significant reorganization and expansion of the urban healthcare system, public–private partnerships in the delivery of services, and enhanced health system governance.[12] Despite these efforts, universal health coverage, reducing health inequality, and disease burden have continued to challenge India.

Different studies done in urban areas across the country have reported a wide range of variation in immunization coverage rate (20–85%).[13],[14],[15] The coverage of immunization in urban areas of Kochi obtained in the current study though much higher when compared to DLHS 4 and NFHS 4 surveys is not much different from the results of recent similar studies done in rural areas in the district.[10],[16],[17] However, reasons for not completing vaccinations and factors associated with partial immunization are different from the reasons in rural areas. These variations in reasons need to be considered and strategies for improving immunization coverage need to be locally contextualized.

Less than ten years of schooling of the mother was associated with partial immunization status of the child. Another study from the state also has reported that education of the mother improves the vaccination probability of a child.[18] Mothers with lower educational status could be a group for greater care and motivation in this area.

It appears that the urban households with nuclear families need special attention from the providers and primary care practitioners. Most reasons cited for not completing primary immunizations clearly points to the fact that immunization of children slips in the priority list of families struggling to cope without adequate support systems in busy urban life. This finding is consistent with findings from many other studies done in urban areas.[19],[20] Urban social interaction often differs from rural through the lack of a common meeting area, fewer extended family connections, and more women engaged in work away from the home, all of which affect the flow of information about health and health services. It is more likely that parents just do not get around to having the vaccinations done on time. Although majority wanted to protect their children, convenience of accessing services might be a major issue. This is something that the health system should work on.

The provision of primary health care also requires additional urban-specific features. The opening hours of public health services may not be convenient for parents who work away from the home. Immunization clinics in public health systems are only on Wednesdays in the state. Parents in nuclear family might keep on postponing vaccination due to inability to take leave to manage common minor adverse events following immunization. Considering shifting immunization days in the public sector to Saturday might be an intervention to improve vaccination in urban areas. Private facilities provide the major part of curative care in urban area, therefore, the potential for integrating immunization activities with private health facilities can be considered. The “supermarket” organization of health services, whereby immunization is always available and children coming for curative care are automatically screened and immunized on arrival or after treatment, has proved successful in urban areas of many countries.[8],[21]

One in four children had not taken DPT booster dose at 5–6 years. This finding needs to be viewed seriously in the context of diphtheria outbreaks in the district that happened among older children and adolescents. Those who missed out doses are not the group resistant to immunization, as most of them had taken all other vaccines till 18 months. Hence, a vigilant and effective system could easily ensure a better coverage for DPT booster at 4–5 years. Primary care clinicians in urban areas may consider this as a priority in immunization. However, the design of follow-up schemes can be problematic in immunization in urban areas with high mobility where the population do not know one another well. Reminder/recall systems which have good evidence for effectiveness in high-income countries may be considered a core component of immunization programs in urban areas.[22],[23],[24] The potential users of urban immunization services may be more socially heterogeneous than rural populations, and will require both different and a greater variety of motivational strategies.

Possessing a government card is an indicator that the mother is registered and is being tracked. One fifth of the mothers of 12–23-month children had not received a Government card in this area. This clearly points to weakness of the public health system. Having registered in private hospital may not be a reason for not issuing MCP card to mothers. Steps need to be taken to register all pregnancies and issue MCP card to all eligible women.

Further qualitative work is required to better understand the interlinking social and demographic factors that influence immunization coverage in urban areas. Report by the mothers may overestimate the immunization coverage. This study also did not consider the validity of the doses of vaccines child took. Despite these limitations, the study has many public health implications.


  Conclusion Top


To conclude, the vaccination coverage of UIP vaccines among children aged 12–23 months in Kochi Metropolitan Area was 89%. Mother's education less than 10th standard (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.39–6.61) and living in a nuclear family (OR 2.4 95%, CI 1.19–5.02) were found to be factors associated with partially/unimmunization status of children aged 12–23 months. Among children aged 5–7 years, coverage of individual vaccines till 18 months of age was above 90%, while the coverage of DPT booster at 4–5 years was only 75%. A locally contextualized comprehensive strategy with strengthening of the primary health system is needed to improve the immunization coverage in urban areas.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support received from our colleagues in the department, the field workers and house surgeons of our urban and rural training centres. We also place on record our gratitude to DPM, NRHM, Ernakulum district.

Financial support and sponsorship

DPM, NRHM, Ernakulam.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
United Nations. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2018). Available from: https://esa.un.org/Unpd/Wup/Country-Profiles/. [Last accessed on 2018 Sep 14].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yadav K, Nikhil SV, Pandav CS. Urbanization and health challenges: Need to fast track launch of the national urban health mission. Indian J Community Med 2011;36:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Urban Health Mission. Government of India, New Delhi: 2008. Available from: http://nhm.gov.in/nhm/nuhm.html. [Last accessed on 2018 Sep 14].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Government of Kerala. Economic Review 2014. State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. March 2015. Available from: http://spb.kerala.gov.in/images/er/er14/index.html#p=1. [Last accessed on 2018 Sep 15].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Registrar General of India. Primary Census Abstracts (2011). Ministry of Home Affairs. Government of India. Available from: http://censusindia.gov.in/pca/default.aspx. [Last accessed on 2018 Sep 15].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sangal L, Joshi S, Anandan S, Balaji V, Johnson J, Satapathy A, et al. Resurgence of diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory supported case-based surveillance outcomes. Front Public Health 2017;5:218.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Atkinson SJ, Cheyne J. Immunisation in urban areas: Issues and challenges. Bull World Health Organ 1994;72:183-94.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cutts FT. Strategies to improve immunization services in urban Africa. Bull World Health Organ 1991;69:407-14.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Registrar General of India. Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above. 2011. Ministry of Home Affairs. Government of India.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Harsha L. Assessment of immunisation coverage in a costal region in Ernakulam district. Proceedings of the 45th National IAPSM conference, Pune, March 9-11, 2018.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Government of Kerala. Report of the task force on poverty elimination. State Planning Board. Thiruvananthapuram, 2015.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Government of India. National Urban Health Mission. Framework for implementation. New Delhi. May 2013. No.L. 19017/1/2008-UH.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Sharma R, Desai VK, Kavishvar A. Assessment of immunization status in the slums of Surat by 15 clusters multi indicators cluster survey technique. Indian J Community Med 2009;34:152-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
14.
Kadri AM, Singh A, Jain S, Mahajan RG, Trivedi A. Study on immunization coverage in urban slums of Ahemadabad city. Health Popul Perspect Issues 2010;33:50-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Nath B, Singh J, Awasthi S, Bhushan V, Kumar V, Singh SK. A study on determinants of immunization coverage among 12-23 months old children in urban slums of Lucknow district, India. Indian J Med Sci 2007;61:598-606.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
16.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. District Fact Sheet. Ernakulam. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India. Mumbai: IIPS; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. District Fact Sheet. Ernakulam. District Level Household Survey (DLHS-4), 2012-13: India. Mumbai: IIPS; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Rakesh PS, Sheeja AL, Subagan S, Salila K. Closing the immunisation gap: Immunisation coverage evaluation in Kollam Corporation, Kerala. Kerala Med J 2015;8:110-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Dammann DF, Solarsh GC. The use of COSAS in the analysis of vaccination coverage in urban, periurban and rural populations in the Edendale/Vulindlela district of KwaZulu. S Afr Med J 1992;82:118-23.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Cutts FT, Glik DC, Gordon A, Parker K, Diallo S, Haba F, et al. Application of multiple methods to study the immunization programme in an urban area of Guinea. Bull World Health Organ 1990;68:769-76.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Hirschhorn N. Missed Opportunities for Immunization. Arlington, VA: John Snow/REACH; 1990.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Crocker-Buque T, Mindra G, Duncan R, Mounier-Jack S. Immunization, urbanization and slums-A systematic review of factors and interventions. BMC Public Health 2017;17:556.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kazi AM, Murtaza A, Khoja S, Zaidi AK, Ali SA. Monitoring polio supplementary immunization activities using an automated short text messaging system in Karachi, Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ 2014;92:220-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Uddin MJ, Shamsuzzaman M, Horng L, Labrique A, Vasudevan L, Zeller K, et al. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh. Vaccine 2016;34:276-83.  Back to cited text no. 24
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed611    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded67    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal