World Rural Health Conference
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 953
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 590-593  

Awareness about oral pathology specialty among medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Services Department in Malappuram district in Kerala, India


Department of Dentistry, Government Taluk Head Quarters Hospital, Malappuram, Kerala, India

Date of Web Publication28-Feb-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Thorakkal Shamim
“Shangrila”, Parappanangadi - 676303, Kerala
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_373_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background and Aim: There is a paucity of information about awareness about oral pathology speciality among medical professionals. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to be reported in literature. This study aimed to assess and create awareness of oral pathology specialty among medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Services Department in Malappuram district in Kerala. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2018 and April 2018. The printed and validated questionnaire regarding oral pathology specialty was supplied to medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Service Department in Malappuram district. The questionnaire comprised of the demographic data of the participants, including age, gender, position, and years of experience, and basic facts about oral pathology speciality. Results: Most participants surveyed (91.7%) were aware of the oral pathology specialty. In total, 77.8% of medical professionals refer oral pathology cases to general pathologists for histopathology report. However, 41.7% of medical professionals know about the new terminology potentially malignant oral disorders and their histopathological interpretation. Approximately, 33.33% of medical doctors were aware about common oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) grading. Conclusion: Medical professionals are aware of oral pathology specialty. The stance of referring and consulting oral pathologists for oral pathology cases for histopathology report is poor.

Keywords: Awareness, India, Kerala health service department, medical professionals, oral pathology specialty


How to cite this article:
Shamim T. Awareness about oral pathology specialty among medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Services Department in Malappuram district in Kerala, India. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:590-3

How to cite this URL:
Shamim T. Awareness about oral pathology specialty among medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Services Department in Malappuram district in Kerala, India. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Oct 15];8:590-3. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2019/8/2/590/253018




  Introduction Top


Oral pathology is the branch of dental science dealing with pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions.[1] The information about the current scenario of oral pathology specialty and its future perspective is evident in the literature.[2],[3],[4] Oral pathology forms a crucial link between basic dental sciences and clinical dental sciences.[5],[6] More recently, dental traits of congenital syphilis, bilaterally impacted maxillary and mandibular impacted canines, Stensen's duct sialolith, and eruption cyst associated with right maxillary deciduous first molar were reported from our dental department referred by medical professionals in our institution.[7],[8],[9],[10] It was known from my medical collegues working in hospitals under Kerala Health Services that they are dealing with oral pathology cases and are referring to general pathologists in private sector for histopathology report. There is a paucity of information about awareness about oral pathology speciality among medical professionals in India. This printed and validated questionnaire study aimed to assess and create awareness of oral pathology specialty among medical professionals in hospitals under Kerala Health Service Department in Malappuram district. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to be reported in literature around the globe.


  Materials and Methods Top


The printed and validated questionnaire regarding oral pathology speciality was supplied to medical professionals in Kerala Health Service Department in Malappuram district. The questionnaire comprised of the demographic data of the participants, including age, gender, position, and years of experience, and basic facts about oral pathology speciality [Figure 1]. The study was conducted between January 2018 and April 2018. All incomplete answered questionnaires were excluded from the study. The questionnaire was supplied to 100 medical professionals, but completely filled questionnaire was received from 36 medical professionals. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Government Taluk Head Quarters Hospital, Malappuram, India (THQHMPM Reference 1/Dental/2018). This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Figure 1: Proforma

Click here to view


Participiants in the study

Designation wise, the participants were grouped into general cadre (Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer and Civil Surgeon) and speciality cadre (Junior Consultant and Consultant). Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer constitutes medical undergraduates with basic Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree working in entry cadre. Civil Surgeon is the promotion post of Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer. Junior Consultant constitutes medical professionals with postgraduate degree or diploma working in entry cadre. Consultant is the promotion post of Junior Consultant.

Speciality wise, the participants were grouped into medical undergraduates with basic MBBS degree working as Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer and Civil Surgeon and medical professionals with postgraduate degree or diploma working as Junior Consultant and Consultant.

Inclusion criteria

Medical professionals working in general cadre (Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer, Civil Surgeon) and speciality cadre (Junior Consultant, Consultant).

Exclusion criteria

Medical professionals working in administrative cadre (District Medical Officer of Health, Deputy District Medical Officer, Superintendent, Deputy Superintendent, and Resident Medical Officer).

The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.


  Results Top


The demographic data of the participants and participant's response to basic questions to oral pathology are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: The demographic data of the participants and participants response to basic questions to oral pathology

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


This study was conducted among medical professionals working in Government hospitals in Malappuram district, Kerala to assess and create awareness about oral pathology speciality. Age wise, majority of responses received from 31–40 age group (55.5%) and 41–50 age group (25%). Sex wise, majority of responses received from males (58.3%) compared to females (41.7%).

Designation wise, majority of responses were received from Junior Consultant (58.3%) and Assistant Surgeon/Casualty Medical Officer (25%). Specialty wise, majority of responses were received from medical undergraduate (19.4%), general medicine (13.9%), pediatrics (11.1%), and general surgery (11.1%).

Most medical professionals surveyed (91.7%) were aware of the oral pathology specialty. Approximately, 77.8% of medical professionals refer oral pathology cases to general pathologists for histopathology report. However, 41.7% of medical doctors know about the new terminology potentially malignant oral disorders and their histopathological interpretation as detailed in literature.[11],[12] Moreover, 33.33% of medical doctors were aware about common oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) grading as given in literature.[13],[14] Regarding the awareness of various histopathological diagnostic measures in oral lesions, the medical professionals showed maximum responses to cytology (77.8%) and immunohistochemistry (72.2%). Cytology is usually employed in oral potentially malignant lesions, oral cancer, and lymphoproliferative lesions of oral cavity.[15],[16],[17],[18] Immunohistochemistry is routinely used for oral cancers, odontogenic tumors, and spindle cell neoplasms.[19],[20],[21] The role of immunofluorescence and special stains in the diagnosis of oral lesions is highly appreciated in the literature.[22],[23]

More recently, National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL) has come up with amendment for oral pathologists to practice histopathology and cytopathology of oral and maxillofacial region and hematology in India.[24] With the above amendment of NABL, the oral pathology services may be instituted in dental department under hospitals in public and private sector that will promote more job opportunities for the graduating oral pathologists in India.

The following strategies should be implemented in Government or private sector to promote oral pathology specialty:

  1. Clinicopathologic club or workshops regarding oral cancer grading, immunofluorescence, and special staining techniques in oral lesions should be instituted
  2. The stance of referring and consulting oral pathologists for oral pathology cases for histopathology report should be improvised
  3. The use of dental informatics as a major tool in teaching about the specialty oral pathology may be introduced[25]
  4. The oral pathology services for histopathology reporting should be instituted in dental department under hospitals under Kerala Health Services Department, so that referral from medical professionals regarding oral and maxillofacial pathologies will be improvised and it will be beneficial for the patients attending tertiary care. It will enhance the strengthening of dental units in public health sector and also improvising the revenue of public health sector. There is also a provision for posting of postgraduate students of oral pathology specialty from public and private sector as peripheral center posting in dental department with oral pathology services for histopathology reporting in Kerala Health Services Department
  5. It is important that after implementing oral pathology services for histopathology services under dental department under District Head Quarters Hospital, the primary health care providers, family physicians, and medical professionals under various postgraduate disciplines of medicine working in Primary Health Center and Community Health Center can refer oral pathology cases pertaining to oral cavity for biopsy and histopathology report. It may be anticipated that oral pathology services for histopathology services under dental department may be initiated in 14 district head quarters hospitals in Kerala, and it will be beneficial for the patients attending tertiary care.


The limitations of the present study include smaller sample size, and the participants are selected only from government sector. After implementing the above strategies in Government sector to promote oral pathology as detailed above, the study with larger sample size will be carried out through out the State.


  Conclusion Top


This paper may be considered as a baseline study regarding awareness about oral pathology speciality among Government medical professionals in Malappuram district in Kerala. Although medical professionals are aware of oral pathology speciality, their stance of referring and consulting oral pathologists for oral pathology cases for histopathology report is poor.

Research highlights

  • First study on awareness about oral pathology specialty among medical professionals
  • Medical professionals are aware of oral pathology specialty
  • Approximately, 77.8% of medical professionals refer oral pathology cases to general pathologists for histopathology report
  • However, 41.7% of medical professionals know about the new terminology potentially malignant oral disorders
  • Moreover, 33.33% of medical doctors were aware about common oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) grading
  • The stance of referring and consulting oral pathologists for oral pathology cases for histopathology report is poor.


Acknowledgments

The author greatly appreciate the support and cooperation given by Dr Rajagopalan K, The Superintendent, Government Taluk Head Quarters Hospital, Malappuram, Kerala, India for carrying out this study. The author also express deep gratitude to all medical professionals for sparing valuable time inspite of busy schedule for filling the questionnaire.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Shamim T. Forensic odontology. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012;22:240-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gowhar O. Prospective of oral pathology as profession-a cross sectional study. Internat J Contemp Med Res 2017;4:1490-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Roy S. Genesis of oral pathology as a distinct dental specialty. Oral Maxillofac Pathol J 2016;7:673-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Govindarajan S, Muruganandhan J, Raj AT. Oral pathology in India: Current scenario and future directions. World J Dent 2017;8:429.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Einstein A. From the author's desk: Oral pathology as a dental specialty in India. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2014;18:1.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
6.
Indirani VL. Critical evaluation of Swot analysis (South Indian scenario). J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2003;7:5-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
  [Full text]  
7.
Shamim T, Renjini PS. Dental traits of congenital syphilis revisited in dental outpatient department (OPD). Head Neck Pathol 2017;11:517-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Shamim T, Renjini PS. Asymptomatic bilateral maxillary and mandibular impacted permanent canines: Serendipity in dental outpatient department. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017;43:427-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Shamim T, Renjini PS. Stensen's duct sialolith in a geriatric patient. Korean J Pain 2018;31:221-2.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Shamim T, Shabeer KPO. Eruption cyst associated with right maxillary deciduous first molar. Pan Afr Med J 2018;30:285.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sarode SC, Sarode GS, Karmarkar S, Tupkari JV. A new classification for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol 2011;47:920-1.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Warnakulasuriya S, Johnson NW, van der Waal I. Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. JOral Pathol Med 2007;36:575-80.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Frare JC, Sawazaki-Calone I, Ayroza-Rangel ALC, Bueno AG, de Morais CF, Nagai HM, et al. Histopathological grading systems analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas of young patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016;21:e285-98.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Akhter M, Hossain S, Rahman QB, Molla MR. A study on histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its co-relationship with regional metastasis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2011;15:168-76.  Back to cited text no. 14
  [Full text]  
15.
Jaitley S, Agarwal P, Upadhyay R. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study. J Cancer Res Ther 2015;11:471-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Sekine J, Nakatani E, Hideshima K, Iwahashi T, Sasaki H. Diagnostic accuracy of oral cancer cytology in a pilot study. Diagn Pathol 2017;12:27.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Navone R, Marsico A, Reale I, Pich A, Broccoletti R, Pentenero M, et al. Usefulness of oral exfoliative cytology for the diagnosis of oral squamous dysplasia and carcinoma. Minerva Stomatol 2004;53:77-86.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Cozzolino I, Vigliar E, Todaro P, Peluso AL, Picardi M, Sosa Fernandez LV, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymphoproliferative lesions of the oral cavity. Cytopathology 2014;25:241-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Ye X, Wang X, Lu R, Zhang J, Chen X, Zhou G. CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Lett 2018;15:9075-80.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Živković ND, Mihailović DS, Kostić MS, Cvetanović AS, Mijović ŽŽ, Milentijević MV, et al. Markers of proliferation and cytokeratins in the differential diagnosis of jaw cysts. Ear Nose Throat J 2017;96:376-83.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Shamim T. The spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity. Iran J Pathol 2015;10:175-84.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Rameshkumar A, Varghese AK, Dineshkumar T, Ahmed S, Venkatramani J, Sugirtharaj G. Oral mucocutaneous lesions - A comparative clinicopathological and immunofluorescence study. J Int Oral Health 2015;7:59-63.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Gotmare SS, Pereira T, Shetty S, Kesarkar KS. Pindborg tumor: Pathology with special stains. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2018;61:239-41.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
24.
National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration laboratories (NABL). NABL 112, Issue No. 3 vide amendment dated 07.05.2018 http://www.dciindia.org.in/Admin/NewsArchives/Misc-ii.PDF.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Singaraju S, Prasad H, Singaraju M. Evolution of dental informatics as a major research tool in oral pathology. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012;16:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
  [Full text]  


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed557    
    Printed4    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded34    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal