World Rural Health Conference
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 1559
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 1065-1069  

Knowledge, attitude, and believes of epilepsy in local communities of Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Internal Medicine (Neurology), College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Ministry of Higher Education, Shaqra, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication27-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdulrahman M Alshahrani
Department of Internal Medicine (Neurology), College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Ministry of Higher Education, Shaqra
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_425_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Aim of the Study: To assess public knowledge, attitude, and believes toward the epilepsy among local community populations in Shaqra Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: An organized 14 questionnaire was prepared to analyze public knowledge attitudes and believes about epilepsy. Study was conducted randomly in common public places in Shaqra City, Saudi Arabia, during the months of April and May 2016. Sample size includes 155 males and 130 females from Shaqra City of Saudi Arabia. Results: The study analyzed the 285 local public including 155 male and 130 female contributors. About 68.38% male contributors and 63.07% female contributors studied Diploma or Bachelor education program. Female contributors (71.53%) were aware about epilepsy as compared with male contributors (58.70%). Maximum number of female contributors (82.30%) believes that epilepsy is treated by medication as compared with male contributors (58.70%). Conclusion: The knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of the epilepsy are found to be much improved in local community of Saudi Arabia. In the modern era, people assume that epilepsy is still due to evil spirit. Many contributors think there should be restrictions on driving and getting jobs in epilepsy patient. Public awareness and educational campaigns should be included in modern methods of education to develop well-knowledged community, which will improve the quality of life of epileptic patients.

Keywords: Attitude, believes, epilepsy, knowledge


How to cite this article:
Alshahrani AM, Pathan A, Alruwais JF, Alduhayshi AM. Knowledge, attitude, and believes of epilepsy in local communities of Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:1065-9

How to cite this URL:
Alshahrani AM, Pathan A, Alruwais JF, Alduhayshi AM. Knowledge, attitude, and believes of epilepsy in local communities of Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Apr 20];8:1065-9. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2019/8/3/1065/254903




  Introduction Top


Prevalence rates of epilepsy ranges from 0.9 to 57 per 1,000 population.[1],[2],[3] There are some differences in the reported prevalence rates. The World Health Organization research protocol for neurological disorders in developing countries [4] has been a major advance in epidemiological research on epilepsy.[5] Epilepsy is the neurological diseases and is very widespread worldwide, affecting >50 million human life.[6] The extensiveness of epilepsy is 6.54 per 1,000 in Saudi Arabia.[5] In developing countries the frequency of epilepsy is greater compared with developed countries.[7] There is lack of knowledge and awareness about epilepsy in the common population and even in healthcare professionals.[8],[9] Epilepsy patient face many problems in daily life including employment, education, and social status,[10],[11] due to lack of awareness and false beliefs about epilepsy that reflect the social survival of epilepsy patient.[12],[13]

The worldwide healthcare burden related to cost and statistics of epilepsy is similar to that of breast or lung cancer.[14] Old traditions believe that epilepsy is an evil act.[15] Pathophysiology of epilepsy suggests transient dysfunction in the brain, fear, and ignorance leads to intolerance.[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]


  Methods Top


The collected data from male and female populations were analyzed in [Table 1] and [Table 2] respectively. An organized 14 questionnaire was prepared to analyze public knowledge, attitudes, and believes about epilepsy [Table 3] and [Table 4]. Questions were selected by research team drafted in English and Arabic. The study sample was collected between April and May 2016. Study was conducted at the different scattered public areas of Shaqra area including hypermarkets, shopping malls, family gardens, college of education at Shaqra University, and at the Outpatient Department of Shaqra General Hospital, Shaqra, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Research proposal, study design, and questionnaire were reviewed and approved by the research unit at the college of medicine, Shaqra University. The aim of the study and questionnaire were described to the contributors. Medical students were assigned to conduct the study in the different places. The names of the contributors were kept confidential to encourage accurate response. Data were analyzed by statistical analysis system. Variables were assessed using Chi-square test. Statistical significance was defined as P values of <0.05.
Table 1: Age group and academic level of male population (contributors)

Click here to view
Table 2: Age group and academic level of female population (contributors)

Click here to view
Table 3: Questionnaires on epilepsy and percentage of male response

Click here to view
Table 4: Questionnaires on epilepsy and percentage of female response

Click here to view



  Research approach: Quantitative research approach and research design Top


Cross-sectional survey design was used to conduct this study.

Research setting: Study was conducted at the different scattered public areas of Shaqra area including hypermarkets, shopping malls, family gardens, college of education, Shaqra University, and at the Outpatient Department of Shaqra General Hospital.

Population: Male and female contributors from hypermarkets, shopping malls, family gardens college of education at Shaqra University and patients from Outpatient Department of Shaqra General Hospital.

Sampling technique: Stratified random sampling technique.

Sample size: 155 males and 130 females.

Sample: The study population included 285 individuals (males and females).

Data collection period: 8 weeks, from April 2016 to May 2016.

Exclusion criteria: Medical doctors and Medical students were excluded from this study.

Inclusion criteria: Male contributors and female contributors above the age of 16 years.


  Results Top


The Study analyzed the 285 local public, including 155 male and 130 female contributors [Table 3] and [Table 4]. Most participants (55.48% from male contributors and 66.15% from female contributors) were aged 20–40 years [Table 1] and [Table 2]; [Figure 1] and [Figure 3]. About 68.38% male contributors and 63.07% female contributors studied Diploma or Bachelor education program [Table 1] and [Table 2]; [Figure 2] and [Figure 4]. Most female contributors (71.53%) reported having prior knowledge of epilepsy as compared with male contributors (58.70%). Source of awareness was public media (30.30% male and 43.07% female). Most female contributors (70.76%) believed that epilepsy is an organic disease as compared with 44.51% male contributors. The belief about epilepsy reflects the educational level. Educated contributors linked epilepsy to organic cause. However, 10.96% male and 9.23% female contributors also linked epilepsy to evil spirit. About 22.58% male and 31.53% female contributors accept that epilepsy is a psychiatric illness. Genetic cause of epilepsy was accepted by 28.38% male and 46.92% female contributors. Most of the respondents (70.96% male and 80.76% female contributors) thought to allow epileptic patients to live in society with other normal persons. Some of the contributors (34.83% male and 45.38% female) showed positive attitude about jobs of epilepsy patients without any restrictions. Only few contributors (24.51% male and 26.15% female) allowed epileptic patient to drive. About 26.45% male and 23.07% female contributors agreed that epileptic patients should not tell his diagnosis to the others to avoid social stigma. About 10.32% male and 6.92% female contributors believed that epileptic patients are usually having low IQ. Maximum number of female contributors (82.30%) than male contributors (58.70%) believed that epilepsy can be treated by medication. About 50.32% male and 76.15% female contributors agreed that Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy.
Figure 1: Age group of male population (contributors)

Click here to view
Figure 2: Academic level of male population (contributors)

Click here to view
Figure 3: Age group of female population (contributors)

Click here to view
Figure 4: Academic level of female population (contributors)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of the epilepsy are much improved in local community of Saudi Arabia. Maximum female contributors had prior awareness about epilepsy; they assumed that epilepsy is an organic disease as compared with male contributors. Source of knowledge is education and electronic media. However, 10.96% contributors think epilepsy is due to evil spirit possession. This is lower than the 40% rate that was reported earlier from the Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (13.8%), and Kuwait (24%) study.[21],[22],[23] About 19.35% contributors believes that there is no cure for epilepsy.

About 82.30% female contributors think that epilepsy is treated by medication as compared with 58.70% male contributors. One of the studies related to public awareness and attitude toward epilepsy indicates some improvement in public awareness and attitude toward epilepsy. However, 15% contributors in study think the cause of epilepsy is an evil act.[24]


  Conclusion Top


The knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of the epilepsy are found to be much improved in local community of Saudi Arabia. In the modern era, people assumes that epilepsy is still due to evil spirit. Many contributors think restrictions on driving and getting jobs in epilepsy patient. Public awareness and educational campaigns should be included in modern methods of education to develop well-knowledged community that will improve the quality of life of epileptic patients.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Shaqra University, Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for providing platform to encourage research and developments among the students, staff, and society.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sander JW, Shorvon SD. Epidemiology of the epilepsies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62:679.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sander JW, Shorvon SD. Epidemiology of the epilepsies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996;61:433-43.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Schoenberg BS. Recent studies of the epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries. A coordinated program for prevention and control. Epilepsia 1987;28:721-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
World Health Organization Protocol: Epidemiologic Studies of Neurologogical Disorders. Geneva, WHO, 1981.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Al Rajeh S, Awada A, Bademosi O, Ogunniyi A. The prevalence of epilepsy and other seizure disorders in an Arab population: A community-based study. Seizure 2001;10:410-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Scott RA, Lhatoo SD, Sander JW. The treatment of epilepsy in developing countries: Where do we go from here? Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:344-51.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ropper AH, Adams RD, Victor M, Samuels MA, Ropper AH. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jensen R, Dam M. Public attitudes toward epilepsy in Denmark. Epilepsia 1992;33:459-63.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Al-Adawi S, Al-Ismaily S, Martin R, Al-Naamani A, Al-Riyamy K, Al-Maskari M, et al. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Oman: Attitude of health personnel. Epilepsia 2001;42:1476-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jacoby A. Impact of epilepsy on employment status: Findings from a UK study of people with well-controlled epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1995;21:125-32.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
El-Hilu SM. Social aspects of epilepsy in Kuwait. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1990;36:68-73.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kim MK, Kim IK, Kim BC, Cho KH, Kim SJ, Moon JD. Positive trends of public attitudes toward epilepsy after public education campaign among rural Korean residents. J Korean Med Sci 2003;18:248-54.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Alaqeel A, Sabbagh AJ. Epilepsy; what do Saudi's living in Riyadh know? Seizure 2013;22:205-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Burneo JG, McLachlan RS. When should surgery be considered for the treatment of epilepsy? CMAJ 2005;172:1175-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Burneo JG. Sonko-Nanay and epilepsy among the Incas. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4:181-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Baker GA, Brooks J, Buck D, Jacoby A. The stigma of epilepsy: A European perspective. Epilepsia 2000;41:98-104.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Baskind R, Birbeck GL. Epilepsy-associated stigma in sub-Saharan Africa: The social landscape of a disease. Epilepsy Behav 2005;7:68-73.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Paschal AM, Ablah E, Wetta-Hall R, Molgaard CA, Liow K. Stigma and safe havens: A medical sociological perspective on African-American female epilepsy patients. Epilepsy Behav 2005;7:106-15.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Jacoby A, Snape D, Baker GA. Epilepsy and social identity: The stigma of a chronic neurological disorder. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:171-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Amoroso C, Zwi A, Somerville E, Grove N. Epilepsy and stigma. Lancet 2006;367:1143-4  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Obeid T, Abulaban A, Al-Ghatani F, Al-Malki AR, Al-Ghamdi A. Possession by 'Jinn' as a cause of epilepsy (Saraa): A study from Saudi Arabia. Seizure 2012;21:245-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Bener A, al-Marzooqi FH, Sztriha L. Public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in the United Arab Emirates. Seizure 1998;7:219-22.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Awad A, Sarkhoo F. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Kuwait. Epilepsia 2008;49:564-72.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Muthaffar OY, Jan MM. Public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Saudi Arabia is improving. Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2014;19:124-6.  Back to cited text no. 24
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
  Methods
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   Research approac...
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed58    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded14    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal