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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 988-994

Clinico-etiological profile of hyponatremia among elderly age group patients in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim


Department of General Medicine, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, 5th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amit K Jain
Department of General Medicine, Central Referral Hospital, 5th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok - 737 102, Sikkim
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_32_19

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Background: Hyponatremia is a common condition observed in hospitalized patients. The incidence is much more in the elderly patients owing to impaired ability to maintain water and electrolyte homeostasis. It is important to evaluate and understand the causes and patient characteristics in order to deliver precise management. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted at a teaching referral hospital in Sikkim and total of 100 elderly patients, diagnosed with hyponatremia, were enrolled in the study. Detailed medical history, clinical and laboratory examination were performed and data including treatment details were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed and results were correlated with patient characteristics. Results: Mean age of the patients was 73.87 ± 6.54 years with a male to female ratio of 1:0.96. About 81% of patients were symptomatic among which lethargy (50%), drowsiness (40%), and abnormal behavior (39%) were common symptoms. Most patients (51%) had profound hyponatremia and Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) (36%) and drugs (26%) were the most common cause of hyponatremia in this study. The common treatment given in this study was 0.9% NaCl (71%). Mortality of patients in this study was 20%. Conclusion: Clinicians need to be aware of the common occurrence of hyponatremia in the elderly, especially acutely sick elderly. A systematic approach to its diagnosis with the application of simple standardized diagnostic algorithms can significantly improve the assessment and management of hyponatremia as the outcome in profound hyponatremia is governed by etiology, and not by the serum sodium level.


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