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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1386-1390

Diagnosis of envenomation by Russell's and Echis carinatus viper: A clinical study at rural Maharashtra state of India


Department of Clinical Medicine, Bawaskar Hospital and Clinical Research Center, Mahad, Raigad, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Himmatrao S Bawaskar
Bawaskar Hospital and Clinical Research Center, Mahad, Raigad, Maharashtra - 402 301
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_156_19

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Background: Envenoming by vipers Russell's and Echis Carinatus are common accidents faced by farmers and labors. Both viper venom toxins alter coagulation mechanism in the victim. The dose of snake antivenin to neutralize the venom is empirical and varies. Though the clinical manifestations in both vipers bite envenoming are nearly similar but dose of antivenin required is more in Russell's viper. We studied in detail about the correlation of clinical manifestations and confirmed species of snake. Methods: Cases of vipers snake bites admitted for last two successive years were studied. Analysis by local manifestations, systemic involvement, 20 minute whole blood clotting test (20WBCT), identification of snake responsible for clinical effects are confirmed by the snake species brought by victims or bystanders, in case of where victim saw the snake bur failed to kill. The victims identified from pictures of big four poisonous snakes (Russell's viper, Echis carinatus, Cobra, and krait). Further confirmation from the species responsible is done by showing the hospital preserved specimen to identify the culprits. Findings: About 77 cases of viper bite studied of these 57 has clinical syndrome suggestive of Russell's viper (RV) bite, one has dry bite, 23 victims brought the killed specimen confirmed RV, of these 18 identified the specimen picture and 5 wrongly locate the species in pictures, 20 victims correctly identified the hospital preserved specimen while 3 failed to recognize. There were 28 patients who saw the snake while bitten but failed to kill, of these 20 patients identify correctly the species on picture while 8 failed to identify. Only 22 correctly identified the culprit by looking at the hospital preserved specimen and 6 were confused. One dry bite victim correctly identified the bitten snake species in picture and hospital preserved specimen. Interpretation: In viper bite poisoning clinical pictures and hospital specimen help to confirm the species are highly supportive for clinical diagnosis.


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