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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 2445-2449

Prevalence, characteristics, and predictors of tuberculosis associated anemia


Senior Resident General Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nidhi Kaeley
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh - 249 203, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_311_19

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Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is one of the deadliest disease and a major burden on the healthcare system in India. India, a second most populous country in the world, has a very high global annual incidence of tuberculosis. Multiple hematological changes have been reported in patients with tuberculosis such as iron deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, and sideroblastic anemia. Aims and Objectives: The present study was planned to find the prevalence and characteristics of anemia in the new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. The secondary objective was to assess the predictors of anemia in new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: The retrospective study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand and included all the new cases of tuberculosis aged more than 18 years attending medicine outpatient and inpatient departments over a period of 1 year. Detailed demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were obtained from the hospital record section and tabulated. Results: Most patients with tuberculosis and anemia were more than 50 years of age. Clearly, males outnumbered females. Approximately, 80% patients were illiterates. A majority (71, 39.2%) of the patients had BMI within the range of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. The most common symptoms of tubercular patients with and without anemia were cough, fever, breathlessness, and hemoptysis. However, pallor was the most common sign. Clearly, hematological indices were lower in patients with anemia. In total, 112 (60%) patients had mild anemia and 103 (56.9%) patients had normocytic normochromic anemia. Significant association was found between Body Mass Index (BMI) and anemia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Similarly, severity of anemia co-related significantly with BMI of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. BMI showed a significant correlation with hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular cell volume, and red cell distribution width (RDW). In addition, age showed a significant correlation with hemoglobin and RDW.Conclusion: Normocytic normochromic anemia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, it warrants frequent screening for anemia in all the cases of pulmonary tuberculosis to improve morbidity and mortality in these patients.


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