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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 2511-2515

Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus at a teaching hospital in India: A 5-year retrospective study


Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prabhat Kumar
Department of Medicine, Teaching Block, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar - 110 029, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_362_19

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Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology that can be life threatening. This study aimed to study the cause of mortality among admitted SLE patients over a period of 5 years at a teaching hospital in India. Methods: A 5-year retrospective analysis of mortality in SLE patients admitted under department of medicine of our institute was done. The presenting complaints, treatment history, clinical parameters, laboratory investigations, organ involvement, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI), and cause of mortality were collected from the medical records on a predesigned proforma. A further analysis of two groups based on the cause of mortality was done. Results: In total, 53 death records were analyzed. Mortality in 28 SLE patients was due to high disease activity (Group I) and mortality in 25 patients was attributed due to both high disease activity and concomitant infection (Group II). Most of the patients were female (98%) and mean age of patient was 30.6 years. About 19 patients (35.8%) were diagnosed with SLE during hospital admission. Fever was the most common presenting complaint (69.8%) and lupus nephritis was the most common organ dysfunction seen (84.9%). Myocarditis was observed in 11 patients and 9 patients had cerebrovascular accident. The mean hemoglobin was lower in Group II (7.4 vs. 8.7 g/dL, P = 0.02). The median total leukocyte count was significantly higher in Group II (10,200 vs. 6600, P = 0.02). The mean serum urea and creatinine levels were also significantly higher in Group II (141.41 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P = 0.006 and 4.7 vs. 1.7, P = 0.0001), respectively. The mean SLEDAI in Group I was 20.8 ± 8.9 and in Group II was17.7 ± 7.5. Bacterial pneumonia (17) was the most common infection, followed by tuberculosis (2) and fungal infection (2). Conclusion: Mortality among SLE patients could be due to disease flare or concomitant infection. Lung is the most common organ affected by infection in these patients.


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