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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 2633-2639

Association of passive smoking with dental caries and salivary biomarkers among 5–10 years old children of Muradnagar, Ghaziabad


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, I.T.S College for Dental Sciences and Research, Delhi, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ipseeta Menon
Department of Public Health Dentistry, I.T.S College for Dental Sciences and Research, A-23 Kirpal Apartments, 44 I.P Extension, Patparganj, Delhi – 110 092
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_369_19

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Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the association of passive smoking (PS) with dental caries and salivary biomarkers among 5–10 years old children of Muradnagar, Ghaziabad. Methods: A case–control study was conducted among 160 children of age group 5–10 years who visited the outdoor patient department of a dental college. Regular smoking households were recognized and children who lived in smoking households were identified as PS subjects. Two categories of children were formed – PS (80 children) and control group (80 children). Parents completed a pretested questionnaire and clinical examination of children was done using dmft index and gingival index. This was followed by collection of stimulated saliva of children which was further subjected to determine salivary buffering capacity and pH. Inoculation on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar for counting streptococcus colonies and Rogosa SL agar (Difco) for counting lactobacillus colonies was done. Cotinine level was then measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Student's independent t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and one-way analysis of variance test were used for analyzing data. Results: The mean streptococcus and lactobacillus colony count was higher in PS case subjects, that is, 348.9 ± 166.509 and 247.3 ± 15.86 in comparison to control group where the mean streptococcus and lactobacillus colony count was 63.03 ± 23.082 and 63.825 ± 12.638, respectively. The mean cotinine level among PS case subjects was 1.08 ± 0.265 which was higher than the control group, that is, 0.00 ± 0.00. The mean cotinine level was directly proportional to streptococcus colonies, lactobacillus colonies, dmft and gingival index (GI) scores, and smoking exposure. Conclusion: PS has deleterious impact on children which was reflected by their increased cotinine levels, streptococcus colonies, lactobacillus colonies, and poor dmft and GI scores in comparison to the control group.


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