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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 3015-3021

Randomized controlled trial of cefazolin monotherapy versus cefazolin plus azithromycin single dose prophylaxis for cesarean deliveries: A developing country's perspective


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aashima Arora
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_593_19

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Aim: To compare the efficacy of pre-incision intravenous single doses of cefazolin versus cefazolin plus azithromycin as an antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean delivery (CD). Methods: This was a single-center, double blind, randomized controlled trial conducted in the PGIMER, Chandigarh. 200 women undergoing elective/emergency cesarean section were randomized. Group A received single dose of cefazolin plus placebo while Group B received single dose of cefazolin plus azithromycin. Primary outcome evaluated was occurrence of surgical site infections (SSI); secondary outcomes included incidence of febrile morbidity, UTI, endometritis, neonatal outcome, total cost of antibiotics, and duration of hospital stay in both the study arms. Descriptive statistics and χ2 tests were used for analysis of the data. Result: There was an overall significant reduction in the incidence of SSI (15% vs 3%; P = 0.03), endometritis (8% vs 2%; P = 0.048), and post-operative febrile morbidity (17% vs 3%; P = 0.001) with the addition of azithromycin to cefazolin. Duration of hospital stay was almost two days lesser for the cefazolin plus azithromycin group. Subgroup analysis of patients with SSI showed the age, duration of ruptured membranes, and type of anesthesia as important predictors of infection rate. Study observed statistically significant reduction in requirement of additional post operative antibiotics, phototherapy for neonates, hospital stay and cost of therapy in cefazolin plus azithromycin group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Tertiary care hospitals in developing countries such as India can opt for the cefazolin plus azithromycin as antimicrobial prophylaxis during CD to maximize the efficacy as well as for decreasing the cost burden of postoperative infections.


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