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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 1287-1295

A review on management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Science, Semnan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Elham Saffarieh
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Science, Semnan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_876_19

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Background: The rare presence of malignant cancerous cells afar any type of pregnancy is known as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). GTN are benign lesions which mostly happen due to the activity of extravillous trophoblast cells and the placental villous tree development. These kinds of diseases would be occurring mainly due to the following clinicopathologic conditions: (I) existence of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT), (II) rare type of choriocarcinoma cancer, (III) gestational trophoblastic tumor of mole, and (IV) the rare malignant tumor of placental site trophoblastic tumor. Objective: This comprehensive study is trying to review the most recent approaches in comprehension of pathogenesis, more precise diagnosis, and also the most effective therapeutic procedures for patients who suffer from GTN disorders. Materials and Method: A comprehensive research was carried out on scientific databases of Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and PsycINFO over the time period of 2005 to 2019. The keywords which applied for discovering more related records were including: Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), molar pregnancy, choriocarcinoma, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), diagnosis, management and treatment. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that GTN patients are treated with conventional surgical therapies or/and chemotherapy, in some patients with resistant disease, these therapies may not be effective and patients may die. Some novel remedial agents are required for decreasing the level of toxicity caused through administering conventional chemotherapy and also treating the patients who suffer from refractory or resistant disease. The newest issues are related to GTN diagnosis, process of progression of hydatidiform mole (HM) to GTN, and the issue of GTN drug resistance. In this regard, we should have a comprehensive knowledge on GTN genetics for answering all the available questions about this disorder.


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