Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 1595
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 2411-2415  

Sonographic assessment of kidneys in patients with hypertension co-existed with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease


1 Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, KSA
2 Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, AlzaiemAlzhari University, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Diagnostic Radiology Science, College of Medical Applied Sciences, Hail University, Hail, KSA

Date of Submission09-Jan-2020
Date of Decision12-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance02-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication31-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Moawia Gameraddin
Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University
KSA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_50_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Hypertension is one of the major world health problems. Ultrasonography plays a useful role in the assessment of morphologicalchanges at the kidneys in hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess sonographic findings of the kidneys in hypertensive patients’ co-morbidities with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease (IDH). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involved 100 participants with primary hypertension selected by a method of simple convenient sampling. The patients were examined using ultrasonography to assess the sonographic findings of the kidneys. The renal length, corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and renal artery diameters were assessed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0) was used in data analysis. Results: The length of the right kidney was 8.9850 ± 1.01 cm and 9.48 ± 0.98 cm for the left kidney. Among the hypertensive patients, the incidence of hypertension was highest in housewives (27%) and students (23%) as compared with the other groups. The sonographic findings were 18% affected with simple renal cysts, 7% poor CMD, and the majority had normal kidneys. Significant correlation was found between age and sonographic findings of kidneys (r = 0.21, P value = 0.033). Conclusion: Simple renal cysts, poor CMD, and stenosis of renal arteries were most common sonographic findings in hypertension. Simple renal cystshad a significant association with hypertension.

Keywords: Corticomedullary differentiation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal cysts, sonography


How to cite this article:
Gameraddin M, Musa WI, Abdelmaboud S, Alshoabi S, Alsultan KD, Abdelmalik BA. Sonographic assessment of kidneys in patients with hypertension co-existed with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:2411-5

How to cite this URL:
Gameraddin M, Musa WI, Abdelmaboud S, Alshoabi S, Alsultan KD, Abdelmalik BA. Sonographic assessment of kidneys in patients with hypertension co-existed with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 23];9:2411-5. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/5/2411/285134




  Introduction Top


Hypertension (HTN) is responsible for the development of kidney diseases (KD) and contributes to cardiovascular events such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The incidence of hypertension is increased in patients with KD.[1] Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM), and HTN has become the most common etiologies of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many countries.[2],[3],[4] DM and HTN were reported to be responsible for >50% of cases of ESRD.[4]

The presence of family history for DM, overweight, and obesity increases the probability of acquiring type 2 DM.[5] The primary care plays a great role for DM and HTN and considered as one of the most effective strategy in reducing morbidity, disability, and premature mortality of both HTN and DM.[6] Investigating the impact of HTN and DM on the kidneys is important for health planners, clinicians, and academics.

Ultrasonography (US) is the essential imaging method for evaluation of the morphological changes of the kidneys as it is easy to perform, cheap, and has no biological effects. In urology, the US frequently leads to an optimal final diagnosis with assessing the renal length, cortico-medullary differentiation (CMD), and the presence of renal cysts.[7]

DM and ischemic heart disease (IHD) have an increased risk of KD. There was a close correlation between HTN and DM with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which are responsible for the leading cause of morbidity and mortality.[8] Therefore, in these situations, early sonographic investigation for kidneys is necessary to avoid severe complications and provides useful information for prognosis and management. The study explored the findings of the kidneys in hypertensive patients in co-morbidity with DM and IHD. Most of the previous studies had demonstrated the impact of DM of kidneys without HTN and other complications such as CVD.[9] Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the sonographic findings ofthe kidneys in hypertensive in co-morbidity with DM and IHD.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional study performed at Khartoum State hospitals in Soba University hospital, Umdorman Military Hospital, and Sharq El-Niel, from first June 2014 to end of August 2016. A total of 100 hundred Sudanese participants diagnosed with essential hypertension confirmed in their records. They were selected using the method of simple, convenient sampling. The uncontrolled DM was defined as those who were not regular on diabetes medicines and did not follow the instructions given by their Doctors. Patients with IHD were diagnosed to have cardiac problems caused by narrowed coronary arteries, which supplied the heart muscle.[8]

The controlled hypertension was considered as blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg or, if the patient had diabetes or chronic renal disease, below 130/80 mm Hg.[9] On the other hand, uncontrolled hypertension was considered as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg.[10] In the study sample, the participants were categorized into four groups; 55 cases have controlled HTN, 20 cases with diabetes mellitus (DM, type 2), 18 with IHD, 7 cases with IHD and DM. The last three groups were uncontrolled hypertensive, and they were compared to 55 controlled hypertensive patients in accordance with the sonographic findings.

The results of renal function test were classified as normal and abnormal; and so the echogenicity was classified into increased and normal. Renal function test (RFT) is considered abnormal when it exceeds the normal range of 0.49–1.15 mg/dl and 11.28–36.14 mg/dl for creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, respectively.[11] The clinical data were collected from the patients, records. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Alzaiem Alazhari University on February 2014.

The sonographic procedures

The sonographic investigation was performed using Mindray DC-N3 (Mindray, China) and Toshiba Nemio 20 (Toshiba, Japan). A 3.5 MHz curvilinear array probe with a variable focal zone was utilized. Patients were fastening 3–4 h to remove abdominal gases and then investigated in supine positions, following the protocol of renal ultrasound. The patients were scanned in the supine and oblique positions to demonstrate the kidneys. Each kidney was examined with a B-mode ultrasound in at least two planes- transverse and longitudinal sections to maintain the renal length and width for each kidney. The length was measured from upper to lower pole for each kidney. The average length of the kidneys was considered 8.5 up to 12cm; renal length lesser than 7 cm was considered as a small kidney. CMD was determined and qualitatively evaluated. Color Doppler imaging was utilized to explore for renal artery stenosis (RAS).

Statistical analysis

Data were entered and analyzed by utilizing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 23. Descriptive statistics used mean ± standard deviation (SD). Chi-square was used to analyze then to compare the sonographic findings with the groups of HTN, age groups, and results of RFT. Spearman correlation test was used to find the relationship between the sonographic findings and age groups and hypertension groups. The significant statistical value was lesser than 0.05.


  Results Top


The study composed of 100 hypertensive patients. They were 51 males and 49 females. The average age was 41.4 ± 5 years, and the duration of hypertension was 7.73 ± 4.56 years [Table 1]. In a controlled group of hypertension, the number of males was 35 and 20 females, while in the uncontrolled group there were 16 males and 29 females. Males to female ratio was 1: 1. The incidence was higher in housewives than others (27%), then in students and teachers (23% and 22%, respectively), as summarized in [Table 1]. The mean right renal length is 8.98 ± 1.01 cm, and the mean left renal length is 9.48 ± 0.98 cm, measured as the longest bi-polar length obtained on a supine and posterior oblique positioning. The average was 9.23±0.97 cm, which was taken from the two measurements. The most affected age group was 41–70 years. A significant correlation was found between age and sonographic findings (r = 0.21, P value = 0.033), as shown in [Table 2]. However, the prevalence of sonographic findings group increased as age advanced, such as simple renal cysts.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the study population

Click here to view
Table 2: Association between sonographic findings in the kidneys and age of hypertensive patients

Click here to view


The sonographic findings were 2% stenosis of renal arteries, 17% simple renal cysts, 7% with poor CMD, and 75% revealed normal kidneys [Table 3]. A significant correlation was found between sonographic findings and the groups of hypertension (P value = 0.008), as shown in [Table 4]. [Figure 1] summarizes the relationship of average renal length with the subclinical groups of hypertension.
Table 3: Sonographic findings in the kidneys of hypertensive patients

Click here to view
Table 4: Association between hypertension groups and sonographic findings of the kidneys

Click here to view
Figure 1: Measurement of average renal length in co-morbidities groups of hypertension

Click here to view


We explored the association between renal echogenicity and results of RFT. There was a significant association between increased echogenicity and abnormal values of renal function test (P value < 0.001), as shown in [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Association of renal function test with sonographic echogenicity of the kidneys in hypertensive patients

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Hypertension and DMare a significant risk factors affecting the kidneys and produced marked morphological changes, which may lead to renal failure.[12] The present study explored the gross sonographic findings in hypertensive co-morbidity with DM and IHD.

In the present study, it was found that HTN with DM and IHD caused poor CMD, which is a landmark of chronic CKD. This result is consistent withprevious studies that reportedthat the incidence of “HTN is higher among patients with CKD, progressively increasing with the severity of CKD”.[13] CMD is a marker for assessing the presence of nephropathy. Our findings also consisted with Gareeballah et al. who found that CMD was mainly disturbed in acute parenchymal disease and lost in chronic end-stage parenchymal illness.[14] A strong association was reported between HTN and diabetic nephropathy.[13] Furthermore, the incidence of HTN varies with the etiology of CKD. Therefore, lack of CMD is attributed to increased cortical echogenicity. The increase in echogenicity is correlated with varieties of histopathological changes, such as medullary nephrocalcinosis, medullary fibrosis, medullary tubular ectasia, vascular congestion, and protein or urate deposits.[15] Moreover, the increased echogenicity associated with abnormal values of RFT, as shown in this study.

In the current study, simple cortical cysts were significantly coincident with hypertension and correlated with age. In agreement with previous studies, it was reported that the incidence of renal cysts was common in adults above 50 years old and was significantly related to the prevalence of HTN.[16],[17] Another study performed by Hong et al., found that the presence of simple renal was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of HTN.[18] Furthermore, the effect of simple renal cyst on HTN was evident in aged persons.

The current study found that RAS was prevalent in 2% in the study sample. RAS is narrowing of the renal arteries, is caused by the various entities, including atherosclerosis, vasculitis, neurofibromatosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital bands, and extrinsic compression, and radiation.[19] The present study analyzed the prevalence of RAS rather than the causes. Consistent with the findings of the present study, previous studies have reported that RAS accounted for 1–6% among patients with hypertension.[20],[21],[22]

The findings of this study are important since DM and HTN accelerate kidney disease which in turn can lead to the progression of renal failure. Therefore, the community should be aware of the necessary of ultrasound examination for assessing the kidneys to avoid the severe complications.

Limitation of the study

The study faced significant problems that the sample size was not large enough. Second, we see it is challenging to separate the effect of DM and HTN on the kidneys as they were interchangeable. Further studies were recommended to confirm the initial results of this study.


  Conclusion Top


Simple renal cysts and poor CMD were significantly positively associated with the incidence of HTN. Age has a significant association with the presence of simple cysts and the occurrence of CMD in hypertension. Sonographic evaluation of renal echogenicity is useful for determining the status of renal disease in hypertensive patients.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Phan O, Burnier M, Wuerzner G. Hypertension in chronic kidney disease – role of arterial calcification and impact on treatment. EurCardiol Rev 2014;9:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Rahimi Z, MansouriZaveleh O, Rahimi Z, Abbasi A. AT2R -1332 G: A polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J Renal InjPrev2013;2:97-101.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Einollahi B. Are acquired cystic kidney disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in kidney transplant patients? J Nephropathol2012;1:65-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
USRDS. The United States Renal Data System. Excerpts from the USRDS 2009 annual data report: Atlas of end- stage renal disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55(Suppl 1):S1.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Asiimwe D, MautiGO, Kiconco, R. Prevalence and risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes in elderly patients aged 45-80 years at Kanungu District. JDiab Res 2020;1-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
CorreiaJC, Lachat S, Lagger G, Chappuis F, Golay A, Beran D. Interventions targeting hypertension and diabetes mellitus at community and primary healthcare level in low- and middle-income countries: A scoping review. BMC Public Health 2019;19:1542.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
O'Neill, WC. Renal relevant radiology: Use of ultrasound in kidney disease and nephrology procedures. Clin J Am SocNephrol2014;9:373-81.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Leon BM, Maddox TM. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research. World J Diabetes2015;6:1246-58.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hemmelgarn BR, McAlister FA, Grover S, Myers MG, MckayDW, Bolli P, et al. The 2006 canadianhypertension education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part I—blood pressure measurement, diagnosis and assessment of risk. Can J Cardiol 2006;22:573-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
WangTJ, Vasan RS. Epidemiology of uncontrolled hypertension in the United States. Circulation 2005;112:1651-62.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Abeadalla AA, Bashir AA, Abdalla IM, Ali IA, Awad KM, Mohmed AA, et al. Normal reference value of adult Sudanese serum creatinine and urea in Khartoum state. Int J Health Sci Res 2018;8:19-24.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Varleta P, TagleR. A feared combination: Hypertension and chronic kidney disease. J Clin Hypertens 2019;21:102-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Tedla FM, Brar A, Browne R, Brown C. Hypertension in chronic kidney disease: Navigating the evidence. Int J Hypertens 2011;2011:132405.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Gareeballah A, Gameraddin M, Mustafa H, Alshabi S, Alagab F, Tamboul J. et al. Sonographic findings in renal parenchymal diseases at Sudanese. Open J Radiol 2015;5:243-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Fiorini F, Barozzi L. The role of ultrasonography in the study of medical nephropathy. J Ultrasound 2007;10:161-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Gameraddin MB, Babiker MS. Renal cysts: Sonographic evaluation and classification in Sudanese adults. J Health Res Rev 2016;3:111-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
  [Full text]  
17.
Kim SM, Chung TH, Oh MS, Kwon SG, Bae SJ. Relationship of simple renal cyst to hypertension. Korean J Fam Med. 2014;35:237-42.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Hong S, Lim JH, Jeong IG, Choe J, Kim CS, Hong JH. What association exists between hypertension and simple renal cyst in a screened population? J Hum Hypertens 2013;27:539-44.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Lao D, Parasher PS, Cho KC, Yeghiazarians Y. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis-diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc 2011;86:649-57.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Simon N, Franklin SS, BleiferKH, Maxwell MH. Clinical characteristics of renovascular hypertension. JAMA 1972;220:1209-18.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Ram CV. Renovascular hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1997;6:575-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Vokonas PS, Kannel WB, Cupples LA. Epidemiology and risk of hypertension in the elderly: The Framingham Study. J Hypertens Suppl 1988;6:S3-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed265    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded52    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal