Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 5141
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 2747-2750  

Reporting of the core indicators on drinking water and sanitation from urban slums of Jammu: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Date of Submission21-Jan-2020
Date of Decision13-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance15-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neha Choudhary
House No. 11, Sector4, Lal Chowk Sanjay Nagar, Jammu - 180 010, Jammu and Kashmir
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_134_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) play an important role in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with poor WASH practices. Poor knowledge and awareness lead to an increase in communicable diseases. Objective: To assess and report the core indicators on sanitation and drinking water from urban slums using standardized WHO and UNICEF questionnaires. Materials and Methodology: The present observational cross-sectional study was conducted for 2 months i.e., from September 2019 to October 2019 in urban slums of Trikuta Nagar, a field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, GMC Jammu. Information was gathered from the head of the household as well as from other household members. About 50% of the population were selected randomly by lottery method i.e., 450 and consist of 112 households. However, at the time of the study, only 100 households were assessed because of the nonavailability of household members and some houses were locked at the time of the interview. Results: The study revealed that nearly 62% of families were of a joint type and most of the families were headed by male members. Around 82.5% of the slum members used water for drinking from improved source but only 21.5% of the household members used adequate water treatment method i.e., boiling. Besides, about 49.5% of the household members used improved sanitation facilities. Conclusion: Local administration needs to accelerate the process of supplying piped water connections to the underserved to improve their drinking water sources and also increase access to basic sanitation services at the household level.

Keywords: Millennium development goals, urban slum, water, sanitation, and hygiene


How to cite this article:
Sangra S, Choudhary N, Narangyal A. Reporting of the core indicators on drinking water and sanitation from urban slums of Jammu: A cross-sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:2747-50

How to cite this URL:
Sangra S, Choudhary N, Narangyal A. Reporting of the core indicators on drinking water and sanitation from urban slums of Jammu: A cross-sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 15];9:2747-50. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/6/2747/287831




  Introduction Top


Slums are the high-risk vulnerable populations that are overcrowded, congested, and living in an unhygienic environment. They are living with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities, which have an impact on people's health. Due to the lack of these drinking and sanitary facilities, many illnesses including diarrhea affect many people. Although one of the targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) related to sustainable access to safe drinking water was met, the sanitation target is yet to be achieved. Globally, it was estimated that 663 million people are still not able to use safe drinking water facilities and 2.4 billion people lack sanitary facilities.[1] It was also estimated that the lack of these basic facilities claims the lives of more than 1.2 million under-five children every year due to diarrhea and other illnesses.[2]

At present, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals target SDG-6 is to ensure sanitation and availability of water.[3] Adequate, accessibility, and availability form the three core components of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices. A large number of health outcomes are associated with inadequate WASH practices due to the diseases associated with fecal pathogens.[4] Due to the inadequate WASH provision, 58% of the 842,000 annual diarrheal deaths occurred in 2012 as reported by the WHO report 2014.


  Material and Methods Top


The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the slum households in the Trikuta Nagar area in Jammu district, which is a field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, GMC Jammu, Jammu, and Kashmir, after taking the institutional ethical clearance. The Trikuta Nagar consists of sectors 1 to 9 and an extension with a population of 16000 (census 2011) and 14 scattered urban slums are under the center and the urban slum population consists of 900 (survey). Around 50% of the population was selected randomly by lottery method i.e., 450 and in 112 households. However, at the time of the study, only 100 households were assessed because of the nonavailability of household members and some households were locked at the time of the interview. Except for the absence of the household members/locked households, there were no other exclusion criteria in this study. After taking clearance, all the staff members as well as Anganwadi workers of Urban Health Training Center, Trikuta Nagar were sensitized about the objective of the study and were asked to inform the urban slum population during the Urban Health and Nutrition Days (UHND's) and through Anganwadi workers so that adequate cooperation of the families can be met as most of them belong to labor class. The household members were then interviewed after obtaining informed consent from them. The WHO and UNICEF's standardized questionnaire for WASH practices were used to collect information about the WASH practices.[5] The questionnaire included core questions on drinking water and sanitation for households. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed in the form of numbers and percentages.


  Results Top


Our study revealed that nearly 62% of families were of a joint type and most of the families were headed by male members. About 56% of the head of the households were skilled, 20% were unskilled, and some were businessman and 40% were literate [Table 1]. The study revealed that 82.5% of the slum members used water for drinking from an improved source [Table 2]. However, only 21.5% of the household members used adequate water treatment method i.e., boiling.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the households

Click here to view
Table 2: Indicators of drinking water and sanitation

Click here to view


The majority of the adult women (61%) spent more than 20 min to fetch water for a household on one trip. About 80% of the households did not use any method for adequate water treatment while the rest 20% of households used boiling as the preferred method for water treatment [Table 3].
Table 3: Survey questions about drinking water (n=100 households)

Click here to view


In the case of sanitation facilities, 49.5% of the household members used improved sanitation facilities like ventilated improved pit latrines (8% of households) [Table 4] and pit latrines with slab (26% of households). About 34.48% of the households dispose of children's feces into the toilet/latrine.
Table 4: Survey questions about sanitation

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Adequate sanitation, proper hygiene education, and global access to safe drinking water can reduce illness and death thereby leading to improved health. The supply of drinking water along with the provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is one of the important elements of primary healthcare. It helps in the prevention of various diseases. Hence, improvement in safe drinking water and sanitation facilities helps in achieving stronger primary healthcare which is further essential to achieve health-related sustainable development goals and universal health coverage.

Inadequate WASH leads to adverse health impacts which tend to be exacerbated in the urban population, particularly the slum population.[6] The indicator of improved drinking water is good (82.5%) and comparable to other studies as well.[7] However, the piped water connection was lesser as compared to the national figures.[8] Besides, due to better or improved drinking water sources, so there was a decreased burden of water-borne diseases, especially among children.[9] A study by WHO reported that approximately 88% of diarrheal diseases occur due to unsafe drinking water. In our study, only 20% of the households boiled the drinking water to make it safe as compared to the other studies where 90% of the households had the habit of boiling the drinking water.[10]

About 61% of the adult women from the present study usually fetch water from water sources for drinking as well as for other purposes like cooking and this observation was also reported in other studies as well.[11],[12] About 39% of the households had water sources near their premises but the majority of the adult women had to spend more than 20 min to fetch water for a household in one trip (26%). In another study done in Andhra Pradesh, over 90% of the households stored water mainly in the utensils with covered lid for safe drinking.[13] The best methods for water disinfection at the household level are chlorination and candle filtration which improves water quality.[14] Due to a lack of awareness and knowledge about the water purification methods, only 20% thought that purification of water is important to make it safe for drinking.

About 49.5% of the household members used improved sanitation facility and 90% shared the toilet facility with other households. The sharing percentage of toilets was more in our study as compared to other studies.[15] The child feces are to be safely managed so that the sanitation service chain becomes effective.[16] To achieve the MDG, local bodies and government had setup community toilets to reduce the open defecation cases. Besides, to reduce diarrheal disease prevalence, attention particularly needs is paid to the women who are living in living settlements like slums.[17]


  Conclusion Top


In today's era, when there are a vast knowledge and awareness among people regarding the use of safe drinking water and sanitation practices, urban slum populations still suffer from the basic access of water facilities in their respective areas. There is huge suffering in terms of physical, mental, and social aspects in even getting a piped water supply and clean sanitary facilities. People need to be made aware of treating water before drinking so that the burden of diseases could be curtailed. Importance of safe drinking water and sanitation is the need of the hour. Thus, local administration should accelerate the process of supplying piped water connections to the underserved so that they also could progress towards living a quality life which is a fundamental right of every individual and is within our reach.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
UNICEF & WHO. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 update and MDG Assessment. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_82419.html. [Updated on 2015 Jun; cited 2019 Nov 03].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kumar A, Das KC. Drinking water and sanitation facility in India and its linkages with diarrhea among children under five: Evidences from recent data. Int J Humanit Soc Sci Invent 2014;3:50-60.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
DESA/UN. The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2016. New York (NY): UN Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA); 2016.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Feacham R, Bradley D, Garelick H, Mara DD. Sanitation and Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
WHO/UNCEF. Core Questions on Drinking Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys. Geneva: Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Van de Poel E, O'Donnell O. What explains the rural-urban gap in infant mortality: Household or community characteristics? Demography 2009;46:827-50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
SuLatt TM, Myint T, Aung WW. Prevalence of household drinking water contamination and of acute diarrheal illness in peri-urban community in Myanmar. WHO South East Asia J Public Health 2015;4:62-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Primary Census Abstract for Slums. Census of India; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Brown J, Hien VT, McMahan L, Jenkins MW, Thie L, Liang K, et al. Relative benefits of on-plot water supply over other improved sources in rural Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 2013;18:65-74.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ssemugabo C, Wafula ST, Ndejjo R, Oporia F, Osuret J, Musoke D, et al. Knowledge and practices of households on safe water chain maintenance in a slum community in Kampala City, Uganda. Environ Health Prev Med 2019;24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0799-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Hazarika MP. Sanitation and its impact on health: A Study in Jorhat, Assam. Int J Sci Res Public 2015;5:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
13.
Reddy BV, Kusuma YS, Pandav CS, Goswami AK, Krishnan A. Water and sanitation hygiene practices for under-5 children among households of Sugali Tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Environ Public Health 2017;2017:7517414.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Clasen T, Schmidt WP, Rabie T, Roberts I. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhea: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007:334:782.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Preventing Diarrhea Through Better Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Exposures and Impacts in Low and Middle Income Countries. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
WHO Guidelines on Sanitation and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Winter S, Dzombo MN, Barchi F. Exploring the complex relationship between women's sanitation practices and household diarrhea in the slums of Nairobi: A cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 2019:19:242.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
  Material and Methods
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed42    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded15    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal