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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 2854-2859

Role of calcium and phosphorous concentration as an intrinsic factor in the development of skull fracture following road traffic accidents


1 Department of Forensic Medicine, Guwahati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 Department of Anatomy, NEIGRIHMS, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
3 Department of Physics, B Borooah College, Ulubari, Guwahati, India
4 Department of Forensic Medicine, NEIGRIHMS, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bishwajeet Saikia
Department of Anatomy, NEIGRIHMS, Shillong, Meghalaya
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_368_20

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Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or head injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. TBI includes a fractured skull as an indicator of insult which can affect the treatment outcome as well. The development of any fracture depends on a combination of factors defining the intrinsic properties of the bone and the extrinsic factors related to the impact. A decrease in bone mass secondary to deficiency of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) can be a significant factor intrinsic to the skull bone, which can modulate the outcome of the impact by increasing the susceptibility of bones towards fractures. We undertook this research to find out whether or not the Ca and P concentration in skull bone has a role to play as an intrinsic factor, in the development of skull fracture following Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs). Methodology: In this case–control study conducted for two years, we collected 94 bone samples, i.e. 47 each, from skull bones with head injuries following RTA, with (case) and without (control) fracture of the skull. The elemental analyses for the bony concentration of Ca and P in both the groups were then compared using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The elemental analysis of bones provided evidence that suggests that whilst; Ca is the only mineral that appears to have a significant correlation with the development of fracture skull, the overall Ca: P ratio of less than 1.99 increases the chances of skull fracture by 3.9 times. Conclusions: Both individual bony Ca concentration and Ca: P ratio can be regarded as important intrinsic factors for the development of skull fracture.


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