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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 2919-2925

Prevalence and severity of periodontitis in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sameer A Zope
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad, Dist - Satara, Maharashtra - 415 110
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_398_20

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Introduction: Periodontitis is associated with many chronic health conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA and periodontitis have similarities in inflammatory mechanism, morphology, and histopathology. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, multifactorial degenerative disease characterized by the deterioration of cartilage in joints. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in patients with established RA and OA. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients reporting to the Department of Orthopaedics, KIMSDU, Karad were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 that included 100 patients with established RA diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification 1987 criteria and Group 2 that comprised 100 patients diagnosed with OA. Demographic profile, medical and dental history, oral hygiene practices, and smoking status of study participants were recorded. Periodontal status of the patients were evaluated using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), Loe and Silness gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). On the basis of the CAL score periodontitis severity was defined as slight, moderate, and severe. Rheumatoid Factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were considered as a serological marker in RA. Serological tests were performed to measure RF and CRP. Periodontal parameters and serological tests were correlated. Results: This study reported 45% severe periodontitis prevalence in RA compared to OA group, which was 33%. Severity of periodontitis is significantly greater in RF positive RA group with mean CAL 5.38 mm compared to RF negative RA group with mean CAL 2.81 mm (P = 0.001). There was moderate positive correlation found between RF titer and severity of periodontitis (r = 0.311). Conclusion: The severity of periodontitis was significantly higher among the patients with established RA as compared to patients with OA. RF positive patients had higher periodontal disease compared to RF negative patients. There was an increase in the mean clinical attachment loss with increase in RF titer.

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