Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 2050
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 3387-3391  

A comparative study to assess general health status and oral health score of tobacco users and nonusers in geriatric population in central India


1 Department of Community Medicine, Index Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Health, Medical Officer, Civil Hospital Siwan, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Professor Department of Community Medicine, Universal College of Medical Science and Teaching Hospital, Siddharth Nagar Bhairahawa, Nepal
4 Department of Community Medicine, R. D. Gardi Medical College and Hospital, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission24-Jan-2020
Date of Decision13-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance15-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rashmi Bhujade
EWS-396/596, Indra Nagar, Near Pani Ki Tanki, Agar Road, Ujjain - 456 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_157_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Globally about 5 million deaths every year can be ascribed to tobacco use. It leads to many systemic and oral diseases. These diseases in geriatric population are common and more hazardous. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in rural area of a teaching hospital to assess general health status and oral health scores of 500 geriatric age group tobacco users and non users. Data analysis was done with SPSS version-20. Chi square test and Mann Whitney U rank test were applied. Results: Poor self assessed health status was found in tobacco users as compared to nonusers. Significant limitation was found among the tobacco users as compared to nonusers. Significant association was found between the presence of diabetes, COPD, and tobacco use. Tobacco use was found to be significantly associated with poor oral health. Conclusion: Statistically significant poor general and oral health was found in tobacco users than nonusers.

Keywords: General health, geriatric population, non tobacco users, oral health, tobacco user


How to cite this article:
Bhujade R, Ibrahim T, Wanjpe AK, Chouhan DS. A comparative study to assess general health status and oral health score of tobacco users and nonusers in geriatric population in central India. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:3387-91

How to cite this URL:
Bhujade R, Ibrahim T, Wanjpe AK, Chouhan DS. A comparative study to assess general health status and oral health score of tobacco users and nonusers in geriatric population in central India. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 9];9:3387-91. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/7/3387/290761




  Introduction Top


Tobacco use is a reprehensible habit and became an epidemic. Each year an estimated seven million deaths are attributed to the use of tobacco.[1] Mortality due to tobacco use in India is around 1.3 million.[1],[2] Smoking will become the main cause of death with > 10million death per year.[3] Nonsmokers have higher life expectancy than a smoker.[4] It is an important risk factor for many systemic and oral diseases. Smokers have poorer general health than nonsmokers.[5] Current study had objectives to compare the general health and oral health of tobacco users and nonusers.


  Materials and Methods Top


After obtaining the ethical clearance from the Institutional ethical committee of above-mentioned teaching hospital, study was conducted in a block of rural field practice area. Block was consisting of 20 villages. Study population was geriatric population. Who were permanent resident and were present at the time of data collection was included in the study, while elderly who were not willing to participate were excluded from study. As the prevalence of smoking in rural geriatric cannot be found, prevalence of 45%[6] of tobacco use was utilized to calculate the sample size, by applying the formula (1.96) 2 pq/l2, taking 45% prevalence of tobacco use in elderly, relative error 10% with 95% confidence limit; the estimated sample size was worked out to be 470 persons. N = (1.96) 2pq/l2 {where, N = Sample size, P = Prevalence = 45, q = 100-prevalence, l = Relative error of prevalence 10%}. Therefore N = (1.96)2 × 45 × 55/4.5 × 4.5 = 470. So the calculated sample size was 470 with adding nonresponse rate of 5% sample size was calculated as 494 which was rounded to 500.Study participants were selected by simple random method. We visited along with the representative village medico social worker to identify and locate the selected individual. After explaining the purpose of the study informed written consent was taken. The participants were assured of confidentiality of information given by them. Then face-to-face interview was conducted by using semi structured proforma. Data analysis was done by using statistical software SPSS 20 Version. For all the tests ‘P’ value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant at 95% C.I.

For assessing the general health of individual we have utilised the selected[7] measures suggested to assess general health status for US population. According to which it can be assessed by various measures but we have selected feasible measures like self-assessed health status, limitation of activities and the presence of chronic diseases for present study.

Activity of daily living (bathing, showering, dressing, eating, getting in and out of the bed, walking, using toilet), instrumental activities of daily living (using telephone, doing light/heavy house work, preparing meals, shopping of personal items, managing money), inability to do job work and difficulty in remembering all mentioned domains were assessed to know the limitation of activity.


  Result and Observation Top


[Table 1] is showing maximum 53% participants were from 60 to 69 year age group, 33% belonged to 70–79 year age group and 14% were from >80 year age group. Almost equal male and female participants were there in study group. Maximum, 97%, participants were hindu. Approximately 71% participants were literate, 56% participants were not doing any job at the time of study, 67% were married, 83% were from joint family. Around 93% participants were from lower socio-economic status, and 51% were smokers.
Table 1: Characteristics of participants

Click here to view


[Table 2] shows general health status of study participants about 2%, 27%, 29% study participants graded their health status as excellent, very good, and good, respectively, while 22.8%, 19.2% participants assessed their health status as fair and poor, respectively. Among study participants 3.4% did not experienced limitation in any type of activity, while 25.6%, 17.4%, 36.2%, and 17.4% study participants experienced limitation in daily activities, instrumental daily living activities, work/job activities, and remembering, respectively. Approximately 36%, 38.2%, 42.2%, 11%, and 54.4% had known cardio-vascular diseases, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, and COPD, respectively. [Figure 1] is showing general health status of study participants, self assessed health status, limitation of activity and presence of chronic disease.
Table 2: General Health status of participants

Click here to view
Figure 1: General health status of study participants

Click here to view


[Table 3] shows statistically significant association was found between self assessed health status, limitation in all selected domains of activities and tobacco use. The presence of diabetes and COPD was found to be statistically significantly associated with tobacco use, as after applying chi square test P value for all mentioned above was <0.05.
Table 3: Association of General health variables with tobacco use

Click here to view


[Figure 2] box plot shows the oral score for tobacco users& non users. The median oral health score for tobacco users was 13 and for non users it was 5. This shows there was big difference in their scores. [Figure 3] box plot shows the oral health score for the different type of tobacco users. The median oral health score was 13, 12 and 11 for combined form of tobacco user, smoked & smokeless form respectively.
Figure 2: Oral health score of tobacco users and nonusers

Click here to view
Figure 3: Oral health scores of tobacco users according to type of tobacco use

Click here to view


[Table 4] shows after applying Mann Whitney U rank test statistically significant higher mean rank (Oral health score) was found in tobacco user as compared to non users. Among smokers statistically significant higher mean rank (oral health score) was found in smoked form of tobacco users as compared to smokeless form of tobacco users. In dual form of tobacco users statistically higher mean rank was found as compared to either form of tobacco users alone. Higher the mean rank (oral health score) poor the oral health.
Table 4: Association of oral health with tobacco use

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Main results of the current study are general health was significantly compromised in smokers of geriatric population as compared to non smokers. Oral health of geriatric smokers was also found to be poor as compared to non smokers. As studies with the similar objectives as current study could not be found so the studies with partial similar objectives were considered for discussion.

Several studies[8],[9],[10] arrived at conclusion that smoking is associated with poor health status, and these findings are having resemblance with our study findings. One study[11] revealed that the prevalence of tobacco related chronic diseases among smokers was higher than nonsmokers for hypertension, coronary diseases, and chronic bronchitis. Evidences also supports that prevalence of COPD,[12] asthma,[13] premature development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes,[14] hypertension, cardio vascular diseases, COPD, limitation physical health and pain[15] are more commonly found to be associated with smoking. John W. et al.[16] concluded that as compared with never smoked, adjusted hazard ratios was more in current smokers for all-cause cardiovascular disease. Recent study[11] also concluded that smokers had more chronic disease. As the presence of chronic disease reflect poor general health, but above-mentioned study was done on the participants of age group more than 18 years of age. Another investigation[17] revealed that smoking can reduce both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Study[18] showed that there was no significant association of smoking with all type of osteoarthritis as found in current study also. While current study documents that statistically significant association was found between smoking, diabetes and COPD. Yingying Yiet al.[19] found that as compared to nonsmokers, current smokers had decreased self-evaluated memory, daily living activities and cognitive function. In recent years, researchers pay more attention to the negative impacts of smoking on working memory.[20],[21] In Comparison with non-smokers, smokers have weaker performance in cognition and memory.[22],[23],[24],[25]

Many studies[26],[27],[28],[29] confirmed that smokers have poor oral health. One study[28] concluded that tobacco consumption in both forms caused poor periodontal status, with smokeless tobacco users having more amount of attachment loss than smokers. This study's[28] results are partially similar to current study as poor oral health was found in smokers but in this study more poor health was found in smokeless form of tobacco users while current study concluded that more poor oral health was found among the smoked form of tobacco users.


  Conclusion Top


Tobacco use has been proven to be an important determinant of general health status of individuals. Tobacco use was found to be associated with poor health perception, various activity limitation and the presence of chronic diseases. Along with the various physical discomforts tobacco was also associated with poor oral health. Morbidity in geriatric age group can be hugely attributed to tobacco use. If we can reduce/stop tobacco use we can help in reducing the morbidity and mortality because of tobacco-related diseases, thus we can contribute in healthy aging.

Key message: Physical health and freedom disability is the single most important asset for elderly and closely linked to their functional ability. Primary care can be made more responsive, if we can figure out the factors influencing the health status (may be general or oral) of elderly. Current study collected the evidence that tobacco use is the risk for general as well as oral health of elderly. Results of this study can be used as a tool/source for policy makers, stake holders, and healthcare providers to modify services provided, updating the training content for healthcare providers and design age friendly interventions to better fit to health needs and health problems of elderly population, and can prevent/delay the disease process. Ultimately the quality of life of elderly people can be improved by a cost sensitive risk management approach, and thus contributing in healthy aging.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient (s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2017: Monitoring Tobacco Use and Prevention Policies. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Jha P, Jacob B, Gajalakshmi V, Gupta PC, Dhingra N, Kumar R, et al. A nationally representative case–control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1137-47.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Nicita-Mauro V, Lo Balbo C, Mento A, Nicita-Mauro C, Maltese G, Basile G. Smoking, aging and the centenarians. Exp Gerontol2008;43:95-101.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors. Br Med J. 2004;328:1519-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking-”50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2014. Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/initi atives/tobacco.[Last accessed on 2014 Jan 9].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey -4 Fact Sheet, 4. Mumbai; International Institute for Population Sciences; 2015-2016.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. General Health Status. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2020.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cramm JM, Lee J. Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India.BMC Public Health2014;14:526.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nouran Mahmoud Summer. Self-rated health status and smoking.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Peixoto SV, Firmo JO, Lima-Costa MF. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study). Rev Saúde Pública2005;39:746-53.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Wang R, Jiang Y, Yao C, Zhu M, Zhao Q, Huang L, et al. Prevalence of tobacco related chronic diseases and its role in smoking cessation among smokers in a rural area of Shanghai, China: A cross sectional study.BMC Public Health2019;19:753.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Terzikhan N, Verhamme KM, Hofman A, Stricker BH, Brusselle GG, Lahousse L. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: The Rotterdam Study. Eur JEpidemiol2016;31:785-92.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Piipari R, JaakkolaJJ, JaakkolaN, JaakkolaMS. Smoking and asthma in adults. Eur Respir J2004;24:734-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Śliwińska-Mossoń M, Milnerowicz H. The impact of smoking on the development of diabetes and its complications. DiabVasc DisRes 2017;14:265-76.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kałucka S. Social aspects of tobacco addiction and the quality of life of people smoking and non-smoking tobacco. Przegl Lek 2012;69:908-13.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
McEvoy JW, Blaha MJ, DeFilippis AP, Lima JAC, Bluemke DA, HundleyWG, et al. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2015;35:700-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Su FY, Wang SH, Lin GM, Lu HHS. Association of tobacco smoking with physical fitness of military males in Taiwan: The chief study. CanRespir J2020;2020:5968189.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
HeQ-Q, Zhang J-F. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and association between smoking patterns and osteoarthritis in China: A cross-sectional study. Front Nurs 2018;5:111-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Yi Y, Liang Y, Rui G. A reverse factual analysis of the association between smoking and memory decline in China. Int J Equity Health2016;15:130.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Pineda JA, Herrera C, Kang C, Sandler A. Effects of cigarette smoking and 12-h abstention on working memory during a serial-probe recognition task. Psychopharmacology 1998;139:311-21.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Ashare RL, Wileyto EP, Ruparel K, Goelz PM, Hopson RD, Valdez JN, et al. Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;133:852-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Andersson K, Hockey GR. Effects of cigarette smoking on incidental memory. Psychopharmacology 1977;52:223-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Parrott AC. Nicotine psychobiology: How chronic-dose prospective studies can illuminate some of the theoretical issues from acute-dose research. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 2006;184:567-76.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Heffernan TM, O'Neill TS, Moss M. Smoking and everyday prospective memory: A comparison of self-report and objective methodologies. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010;112:234-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Heffernan TM, O'Neill TS, Moss M. Smoking-related prospective memory deficits in a real-world task. Drug Alcohol Depend 2012;120:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Arowojolu MO, Fawole OI, Dosumu EB, Opeodu OI. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state Niger Med J 2013;54:240-3.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Anand PS, Kamath KP, Shekar BR, Anil S. Relationship of smoking and smokeless tobacco use to tooth loss in a central Indian population. Oral Health Prev Dent2012;10:243-52.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Katuri KK, Alluri JK, Chintagunta C, Tadiboina N, Borugadda R, Loya M,et al. Assessment of periodontal health status in smokers and smokeless tobacco users: A cross-sectional study.J Clin Diagn Res2016;10:ZC143-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Goyal J, Menon I, Singh RP, Gupta R, Sharma A, Bhagia P. Prevalence of periodonatal status among nicotine dependent individuals of 35-44 years attending community dental camps in Ghaziabad district, Utter Pradesh.JFamily Med Prim Care 2019;82456-62.  Back to cited text no. 29
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
   Result and Obser...
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed23    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded7    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal