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SHORT PAPER
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 4473-4475  

Geographical distribution of COVID-19 in the World and Iran; Investigation of possible transmission roots


Department of Emergency Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

Date of Submission30-Apr-2020
Date of Decision11-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance27-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication25-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mehrdad Soltani Delgosha
Department of Emergency Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_733_20

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How to cite this article:
Ahmadi K, Dashti MF, Delgosha MS. Geographical distribution of COVID-19 in the World and Iran; Investigation of possible transmission roots. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:4473-5

How to cite this URL:
Ahmadi K, Dashti MF, Delgosha MS. Geographical distribution of COVID-19 in the World and Iran; Investigation of possible transmission roots. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 24];9:4473-5. Available from: http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/8/4473/293077




  Introduction Top


Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has named the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as COVID-19.[1] The first people affected have been examined further to find the source of the infection. The findings had indicated that they were linked to seafood and the livestock market, so that initially only animal-to-human transmission of the virus was proposed and disease prevention was limited to this level.

Over time, we have seen an increasing trend in the number of patients, not only in China but also in the continents of Europe and the United States. In addition to animal-to-human transmission of the COVID-19 virus, human-to-human transmission has been also revealed.[2] Given the rapid spread of COVID-19 in the world and the potential pandemic risk of virus, we aimed to provide a letter for reviewing the epidemiology of COVID-19 based on the coronavirus update publication image in the world and in Iran.


  Epidemiology of COVID-19 in the World and Iran Top


Given the rapid spread of COVID-19, epidemiologic data on this disease provide the information necessary to develop appropriate strategies for controlling diseases. The outbreak of COVID-19 due to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in December 2019 from Wuhan, China, and then spread rapidly throughout China and 202 other countries, including Iran, where it became a tremendous public health threat. The geographical distribution of COVID-19 cases Iran is depicted in [Figure 1] by March 31, 2020. To date, according to WHO, there have been 841,173 cases of COVID-19 virus worldwide, of which 180,271 were in USA and 660,902 in other countries. Reports also indicate that there are 3,573 deaths in USA and 37,829 deaths in other countries. As mentioned, the new Corona virus quickly crosses the borders of many countries when it is added daily to the list of countries involved in COVID-19.
Figure 1: 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Iran. Sources: Ministry of Health and Medical Education has taken from Wikipedia

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Countries such as Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea are among the first countries involved due to their proximity to China. Japan is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19, where officials say was the first to have a cruise ship. According to Japanese officials, the first cases belonged to cruise ship passengers. Following the global outbreak of COVID-19, especially in Asia, the first cases of COVID-19 in Iran were approved by the Ministry of Health on February 19, 2020. On the last day of February this year, 2 patients died due to respiratory complications in Qom, Iran, that raised doubts about the COVID-19 presence in Iran [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Iran Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs has taken from worldometers until March 31, 2020

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Respiratory diseases spread among the citizens of Qom, and a positive test of fatal patients confirmed COVID-19 in the province, and Qom was identified as the primary focus of the new coronavirus disease.

Evidence suggests the Chinese workers may have transmitted the virus to the province. Continued direct air communication with China, as COVID-19 spreads widely in China, led to the entry of the virus into Iranian borders. So Iran has been a hub for Chinese travelers between countries for a short time.

It should be noted that after confirming the presence of COVID-19 in Qom, within a short period of time, several cases of the virus were confirmed in provinces near the primary focus, such as Tehran, Gilan. According to the Ministry of Health, there are 44,605 cases of COVID-19 in Iran up to March 31, 2020, where the number of deaths rose to 2,898. The evidence also showed that there were 14,656 treated cases. As the geographical distribution of COVID-19 in Iran can be seen in [Figure 1], all provinces were involved, among which Tehran, Qom, Alborz, Guilan, Mazandaran, and Isfahan with the high number, and COVID-19 patients were the most affected. [Table 1] was provided to show the COVID-19 infection and mortality rate. Neighbors of Iran, such as the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and other Arab countries have reported an increase in the occurrence of COVID-19 cases as COVID-19 has increased in Iran, where carriers are considered to be travelers who traveled from Iran to these countries. Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Lebanon are among the countries involved in disease. Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates, were reported to be worse off than other countries with 33 cases and 13 cases, respectively. As shown in [Figure 1], the spread of the virus is not limited to countries close to China or even the continent of Asia, and the number of infected people is increasing in Europe and the United States. The first European country involved was France, where all patients reportedly had contact with colleagues from China.
Table 1: Morbidity and Mortality Statistics of COVID-19 with Regional Disaggregation in any country until March 31, 2020

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Italy is, among other European countries where the spread of the disease is extremely worrying. The number of cases in the country has reached 80,589 by March 26, 2020. In addition, European countries such as Spain, Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, and UK have also reported high cases of COVID-19 conflict. Also, the first positive case of the new Corona virus in Latin America relates to a Brazilian citizen who recently traveled to Italy. All of this evidence points to the importance of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. [Table 1] was provided to show the COVID-19 infection and mortality rate. A statistical study of COVID-19 in China demonstrated that 55% of the cases were male, and women had a lower occurrence of the virus. The aforementioned study indicated that the mean age of patients was 46 years, and the mean age of patients who died at the time of diagnosis was 70 years. The study also shows that less than 3% of patients under the age of 15 years. Although the death rate of patients with this disease is less than many contagious diseases, but the rate of spread is of great importance among humans. It is noteworthy that the deaths from this disease continues to rise.[3] It's far from the first time, researchers have encountered trend coronavirus around the world. So far, they have not been able to develop an effective vaccine for the prevention of the disease; it is recommended that scientists come together all over the world to focus on the virus vaccine development for preventing human infection and economic damage. Maybe someday humans will be able to overcome the Corona virus, which is five million times smaller than humans.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Binnicker MJ. Emergence of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the importance of diagnostic testingg: Why partnership between clinical laboratories, public health agencies, and industry is essential to control the outbreak. Clin Chem 2020;66:664-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. Return of the coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 2020;12:135.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kaiyuan S, Chen J, Viboud C. Early epidemiological analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak based on crowdsourced data: A population-level observational study. Lancet Digital Health 2020;8:E201-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    


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