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FAMILY PRACTICE
Childhood obesity: causes and consequences
Krushnapriya Sahoo, Bishnupriya Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Choudhury, Nighat Yasin Sofi, Raman Kumar, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
April-June 2015, 4(2):187-192
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.154628  PMID:25949965
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.
  33,775 5,389 187
EDITORIAL
The leadership crisis of medical profession in India: ongoing impact on the health system
Raman Kumar
April-June 2015, 4(2):159-161
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.154621  PMID:25949958
By 2030 India will have one million additional MBBS doctors; currently being produced @50,000 per year. Contrary to perception of scarcity of medical doctors, a large section of newly qualified physicians are spending considerable years in dysfunctional status due to mismanagement in human resource in health in India. There are very few employment opportunities for qualified doctors in public sector; at the same time the average salary of MBBS doctors in urban private hospitals is very low. Paradoxically, in a country of 1.3 billion populations there is no actual demand for medical professionals. While the popular perception is that young doctors are not willing for community service, a reality check is required on the count of intent and capacity of public sector as well as industry towards engagement of medical doctors in the process of service delivery. The visible leaders of medical profession are unable to reflect the ground reality. There is a leadership crisis among medical doctors in India.
  21,805 848 2
RESEARCH AND AUDIT
Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research
Lawrence Leung
July-September 2015, 4(3):324-327
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.161306  PMID:26288766
In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research can impact and reshape the discipline of primary care, spiraling out from clinic-based health screening to community-based disease monitoring, evaluation of out-of-hours triage services to provincial psychiatric care pathways model and finally, national legislation of core measures for children's healthcare insurance. Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies.
  16,653 3,821 102
REVIEW ARTICLE
Disability and rehabilitation services in India: Issues and challenges
S Ganesh Kumar, Gautam Roy, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar
January-June 2012, 1(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.94458  PMID:24479007
Disability is an important public health problem especially in developing countries like India. The problem will increase in future because of increase in trend of non-communicable diseases and change in age structure with an increase in life expectancy. The issues are different in developed and developing countries, and rehabilitation measures should be targeted according the needs of the disabled with community participation. In India, a majority of the disabled resides in rural areas where accessibility, availability, and utilization of rehabilitation services and its cost-effectiveness are the major issues to be considered. Research on disability burden, appropriate intervention strategies and their implementation to the present context in India is a big challenge. Recent data was collected from Medline and various other sources and analyzed. The paper discusses various issues and challenges related to disability and rehabilitation services in India and emphasize to strengthen health care and service delivery to disabled in the community.
  16,879 1,834 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The ultrasound identification of fetal gender at the gestational age of 11–12 weeks
Farideh Gharekhanloo
January-February 2018, 7(1):210-212
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_180_17  PMID:29915761
Introduction: The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance. Accurate prenatal identification is currently only possible through invasive procedures. The present study was conducted to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of ultrasound fetal gender identification. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 women in their 11th and 12th weeks of pregnancy in Hamadan in 2014. Ultrasound imaging performed in the 11th and 12th weeks of pregnancy for fetal gender identification identified the fetus either as a girl, a boy, or as a “gender not assigned.” Frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the gender identification was assessed using SPSS version 20. The significant level was 0.05 in all analyses. Results: Of the total of 150 women, the gender was identified as female in 32 (21.3%), as male in 65 (43.3%), and not assigned in 53 (35.3%); overall, gender identification was made in 64.6% of the cases. A total of 57 male fetuses were correctly identified as boys, and 8 female fetuses were wrongly identified as boys. As for the female fetuses, 31 were correctly identified as girls, and 1 was wrongly identified as a boy. The positive predictive value for the ultrasound imaging gender identification was 87.6% for the male fetuses and 96.8% for the female fetuses. Conclusion: The present study had a much higher gender identification accuracy compared to other studies. The final success of fetal gender identification was about 91% in the 11th and 12th weeks of pregnancy.
  15,153 174 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
The family and family structure classification redefined for the current times
Rahul Sharma
October-December 2013, 2(4):306-310
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.123774  
The family is a basic unit of study in many medical and social science disciplines. Definitions of family have varied from country to country, and also within country. Because of this and the changing realities of the current times, there is a felt need for redefining the family and the common family structure types, for the purpose of study of the family as a factor in health and other variables of interest. A redefinition of a ''family'' has been proposed and various nuances of the definition are also discussed in detail. A classification scheme for the various types of family has also been put forward. A few exceptional case scenarios have been envisaged and their classification as per the new scheme is discussed, in a bid to clarify the classification scheme further. The proposed scheme should prove to be of use across various countries and cultures, for broadly classifying the family structure. The unique scenarios of particular cultures can be taken into account by defining region or culture-specific subtypes of the overall types of family structure.
  12,334 2,508 3
EDITORIAL
India achieves WHO recommended doctor population ratio: A call for paradigm shift in public health discourse!
Raman Kumar, Ranabir Pal
September-October 2018, 7(5):841-844
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_218_18  PMID:30598921
The Indian medical education system has been able to pull through a major turnaround and has been successfully able to double the numbers of MBBS graduate (modern medicine training) positions during recent decades. With more than 479 medical schools, India has reached the capacity of an annual intake of 67,218 MBBS students at medical colleges regulated by the Medical Council of India. Additionally, India produces medical graduates in the “traditional Indian system of medicine,” regulated through Central Council for Indian Medicine. Considering the number of registered medical practitioners of both modern medicine (MBBS) and traditional medicine (AYUSH), India has already achieved the World Health Organization recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1,000 the “Golden Finishing Line” in the year 2018 by most conservative estimates. It is indeed a matter of jubilation and celebration! Now, the time has come to critically analyze the whole premise of doctor–population ratio and its value. Public health experts and policy makers now need to move forward from the fixation and excuse of scarcity of doctors. There is an urgent need to focus on augmenting the fiscal capacity as well as development of infrastructure both in public and private health sectors toward addressing pressing healthcare needs of the growing population. It is also an opportunity to call for change in the public health discourse in India in the background of aspirations of attaining sustainable development goals by 2030.
  13,706 548 -
Family medicine at AIIMS (all India institute of medical sciences) like institutes
Raman Kumar
July-December 2012, 1(2):81-83
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.104925  PMID:24479011
  5,063 9,190 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Selfies: A boon or bane?
Agam Bansal, Chandan Garg, Abhijith Pakhare, Samiksha Gupta
July-August 2018, 7(4):828-831
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_109_18  PMID:30234062
Background: Selfie deaths have become an emerging problem and we performed this study to assess the epidemiology of selfie-related deaths across the globe. Subject and Methods: We performed a comprehensive search for keywords such as “selfie deaths; selfie accidents; selfie mortality; self photography deaths; koolfie deaths; mobile death/accidents” from news reports to gather information regarding selfie deaths. Results: From October 2011 to November 2017, there have been 259 deaths while clicking selfies in 137 incidents. The mean age was 22.94 years. About 72.5% of the total deaths occurred in males and 27.5% in females. The highest number of incidents and selfie-deaths has been reported in India followed by Russia, United States, and Pakistan. Drowning, transport, and fall form the topmost reasons for deaths caused by selfies. We also classified reasons for deaths due to selfie as risky behavior or non-risky behavior. Risky behavior caused more deaths and incidents due to selfies than non-risky behavior. The number of deaths in females is less due to risky behavior than non-risky behavior while it is approximately three times in males. Conclusion: “No selfie zones” areas should be declared across tourist areas especially places such as water bodies, mountain peaks, and over tall buildings to decrease the incidence of selfie-related deaths.
  13,148 934 4
Internet addiction and psychological well-being among college students: A cross-sectional study from Central India
Arvind Sharma, Richa Sharma
January-February 2018, 7(1):147-151
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_189_17  PMID:29915749
Background: Internet provides tremendous educational benefits for college students and also provided better opportunities for communication, information, and social interaction for young adults; however, excessive internet use can lead to negative psychological well-being (PWB). Objective: The present study was conducted with the objective to find out the relationship between internet addiction and PWB of college students. Materials and Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in college students of Jabalpur city of Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 461 college students, using internet for at least past 6 months were included in this study. Young's Internet addiction scale, consisting of 20-item, based on five-point Likert scale was used to calculate internet addiction scores and 42-item version of the Ryff's PWB scale based on six-point scale was used in this study. Results: A total of 440 questionnaire forms were analyzed. The mean age of students was 19.11 (±1.540) years, and 62.3% were male. Internet addiction was significantly negatively correlated to PWB (r = –0.572, P < 0.01) and subdimensions of PWB. Students with higher levels of internet addiction are more likely to be low in PWB. Simple linear regression showed that internet addiction was a significant negative predictor of PWB. Conclusion: PWB of college students negatively affected by internet addiction. Hence, it is essential to develop strategies for prevention of internet addiction which is very important for promoting PWB of college students.
  9,542 3,937 2
EDITORIAL
Healthcare is primary
Raman Kumar
October-December 2015, 4(4):479-482
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.174262  PMID:26985402
India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2 nd National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC) brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care), the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.
  3,127 8,822 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An exploratory study on socio economic status scales in a rural and urban setting
NR Ramesh Masthi, Gangaboraiah , Praveen Kulkarni
January-March 2013, 2(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.109952  PMID:24479048
Background: There are many different scales to measure socioeconomic status (SES). The present study was conducted with the objective to compare the most commonly used SES in rural and urban setting. Materials and Methods: This exploratory study was conducted in the rural and urban field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore for a period of 3 months between January and April 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: To measure the agreement between the scales spearman's rank correlations was applied. Results: A total of 120 families were included in the study. Among the 60 families surveyed at rural setting, it was observed that, majority 40 (67%) belonged to high class when the Standard of Living Index (SLI) scale was applied. Among the 60 families surveyed at urban setting, majority 30 (50%) belonged to high class when the SLI scale was applied. Conclusions: The SLI scale gives a more accurate and realistic picture of the SES of the family and hence should be the scale recommended for classification of SES in urban and rural setting.
  10,128 1,260 5
EDITORIAL
Future direction of family medicine training in India
Ranabir Pal, Raman Kumar, Vidyasagar , Neeti Rustagi, Bijoy Mukherjee, Debabrata Sarbapalli
October-December 2014, 3(4):295-299
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.148086  PMID:25657931
  2,193 8,674 1
1 st National conference on family medicine and primary care: A journey toward stronger primary care in India
Raman Kumar
October-December 2013, 2(4):303-305
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.123773  
Academy of Family Physicians of India organized the first National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care (FMPC) on 20-21 April 2013 at India International Centre New Delhi. The conference was a major success towards positioning of requirement for a distinct academic discipline (family medicine) within the medical and nursing education system as a means for strengthening of primary care in India. The event gained its prominence in the times when universal health coverage is being debated. A generalist approach in development of human resource prominently figured in the discussions. The deliberations and talks of the Indian as well as international experts were recorded and released as the report of national consultation on family medicine programme.
  2,432 8,398 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: Understanding the best evidence in primary healthcare
S Gopalakrishnan, P Ganeshkumar
January-March 2013, 2(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.109934  PMID:24479036
Healthcare decisions for individual patients and for public health policies should be informed by the best available research evidence. The practice of evidence-based medicine is the integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research and patient's values and expectations. Primary care physicians need evidence for both clinical practice and for public health decision making. The evidence comes from good reviews which is a state-of-the-art synthesis of current evidence on a given research question. Given the explosion of medical literature, and the fact that time is always scarce, review articles play a vital role in decision making in evidence-based medical practice. Given that most clinicians and public health professionals do not have the time to track down all the original articles, critically read them, and obtain the evidence they need for their questions, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines may be their best source of evidence. Systematic reviews aim to identify, evaluate, and summarize the findings of all relevant individual studies over a health-related issue, thereby making the available evidence more accessible to decision makers. The objective of this article is to introduce the primary care physicians about the concept of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, outlining why they are important, describing their methods and terminologies used, and thereby helping them with the skills to recognize and understand a reliable review which will be helpful for their day-to-day clinical practice and research activities.
  8,121 2,057 68
EDITORIAL
The tyranny of the Medical Council of India's new (2019) MBBS curriculum: Abolition of the academic discipline of family physicians and general practitioners from the medical education system of India
Raman Kumar
February 2019, 8(2):323-325
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_147_19  PMID:30984631
After 21 years, a new MBBS curriculum has been released by the Medical Council of India (MCI), titled “Competency-based UG Curriculum for the Indian Medical Graduates.” This curriculum is to be rolled out from August 2019 across India. The curriculum document runs through 890 pages in three volumes. Overall, 2939 competencies have been proposed to be acquired by trainee MBBS doctors. The parliament of India in one of its reports (2016) noted that the medical education system is designed in a way that the concept of family physicians has been ignored. Not to mention a formal introduction as discipline, the new MCI MBBS curriculum does not even mention the words “General Practice” or “Family Medicine” or “Family Physicians” throughout the voluminous document. The curriculum committee has also ignored the recommendations of National Health Policies (NHPs) of 2002 and 2017 of the Government of India (GOI). In practicality, it leaves the MBBS students in the road of no return of specialist and tertiary level hospitalist care. It deliberately deprives thousands of medical graduates an invaluable autonomous career in community setting as practicing family doctors. Simultaneously, this new curriculum drafting exposes a treacherous hierarchical monopoly of hospital based specialists doctors over generalist community based primary care physicians within the healthcare delivery system of India. Keeping out family physicians and general practitioners from the health system means a free flow of patients from community to expensive tertiary care facilities in the absence of any structured referral system. Family medicine and general practice are independent medical disciplines/specialties across world. The curriculum neither meets the national public health aspirations nor the GOI policies on medical education. If implemented, it will be disastrous to the healthcare delivery system and public good in general. The new MBBS curriculum deserves to be outright rejected for the inherent fallacies.
  9,124 439 2
FAMILY PRACTICE
Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it
Suneela Garg, Tanu Anand
April-June 2015, 4(2):184-186
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.154627  PMID:25949964
Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls' and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls' knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them.
  8,712 716 8
REVIEW ARTICLES
Socioeconomic status scales-modified Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's scale updated for 2019
Rabbanie Tariq Wani
June 2019, 8(6):1846-1849
DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_288_19  PMID:31334143
Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the prime factors influencing the health status of a nation. It is the measure of the social standing of the individual or a family and has a wide impact on an individual/family's health, educational attainment, diet, lifestyle, etc., The per capita income of citizens is a major factor that decides the SES of the population. The affordability and utilization of the health facilities depend on the socioeconomic profile of the population. The periodic changes in the consumer price of goods globally as well as nationally due to inflation warrants that it is mandatory to constantly update the income-based socioeconomic scales so as the assessment is made correctly in practice. We are making an attempt to provide an updated Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's socioeconomic scales for 2019.
  8,548 622 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune, Maharashtra, using the 30 cluster sampling technique
Pankaj Kumar Gupta, Prasad Pore, Usha Patil
January-March 2013, 2(1):50-54
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.109945  PMID:24479044
Background: Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. One of the most cost-effective and easy methods for child survival is immunization. Despite all the efforts put in by governmental and nongovernmental institutes for 100% immunization coverage, there are still pockets of low-coverage areas. In India, immunization services are offered free in public health facilities, but, despite rapid increases, the immunization rate remains low in some areas. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators also give importance to immunization. Objective: To assess the immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC) using the WHO's 30 cluster sampling method for evaluation of immunization coverage. Results: A total of 1913 houses were surveyed. A total of 210 children aged 12-23 months were included in the study. It was found that 86.67% of the children were fully immunized against all the six vaccine-preventable diseases. The proportion of fully immunized children was marginally higher in males (87.61%) than in females (85.57%), and the immunization card was available with 60.95% of the subjects. The most common cause for partial immunization was that the time of immunization was inconvenient (36%). Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve universal coverage of immunization in the rural area of Pune district.
  8,450 623 2
Socio demographic determinants and knowledge, attitude, practice: Survey of family planning
Vasundhara Sharma, Uday Mohan, Vinita Das, Shally Awasthi
January-June 2012, 1(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.94451  PMID:24479000
Background: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum and rural areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Objective: To assess the sociodemographic determinants and KAP of family planning among urban slum and rural areas of Lucknow. Study Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Bal Mahila Chikitsalaya, Aliganj, in urban and Primary Health Centre, Bakshi Ka Talaab, in rural area of Lucknow. Study Period: October 2008 to April 2009. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and eightytwo postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who came to these health facilities for their child's vaccination were interviewed, by a preformed and pretested schedule. Results: Maximum utilization of family methods were seen among Hindu women, women of age group 30 or more, parity four and more, educational level upto high school and above and those of higher socioeconomic class. Although overall residential area (urban or rural) of women had no influence on the practice of family planning by them and all of them were willing to adopt family planning methods in future, urban women were found to have a higher level of knowledge and attitude toward modern methods of family planning. Only 2.8% were unsure of preferred method for future use. Conclusion: Family planning programs which effectively promotes the use of family planning methods, so that the trend toward increase in population could be arrested is the need of hour.
  7,997 985 8
INSPIRATIONAL BIOGRAPHY
A crusade against scorpion sting: Life and works of Dr. Himmatrao Bawaskar
Ajinkya A Kale
January-June 2012, 1(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.94453  PMID:24479002
In the times of rapid advancement of science and technology, advance medical equipment and hi tech hospitals represent the face of medical science. The aspirations and ambitions of medical professionals are also shifting, with growing concerns of deterioration of doctor patient relationship as well as disconnect between services and the community needs. The life of Dr Himmatrao Bawaskar defies several conventions of today's medical practice. His outstanding dedication towards patients and commitment to provide high quality care in resource poor setting makes him an ideal role model for younger generation of physicians in India.
  8,114 629 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Access to health services among slum dwellers in an industrial township and surrounding rural areas: A rapid epidemiological assessment
Amitav Banerjee, JS Bhawalkar, SL Jadhav, Hetal Rathod, DT Khedkar
January-June 2012, 1(1):20-26
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.94444  PMID:24478995
Context: The biggest challenge in implementing the primary health care principles is of equitable distribution of health care to all. The rural masses and urban slum dwellers are most vulnerable to lack of access to health care. Aim: To study access to health services among slum dwellers and rural population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey in an urban slum and surrounding rural areas in field practice area of a medical college. Materials and Methods: Structured instrument along with qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions, were used to collect information on access and utilization of health services from 865 individuals of both sexes and all ages selected from urban slums, villages, and indoor and outdoor patients. Access to basic determinants of good health such as housing, water, and sanitation was also elicited. Besides, health needs based on self-reported disease conditions were compiled. Results: More than 50% of respondents were living in poor housing and insanitary conditions. Besides the burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition (especially in children), risk of lifestyle diseases as evidenced by high Body mass index in 25% of adults surveyed was found. Private medical practitioners were more accessible than government facilities. More than 60% sought treatment from private medical facilities for their own ailments (for sickness in children this proportion was 74%). People who visited government facilities were more dissatisfied with the services (30.88%) than those who visited private facilities (18.31%). This difference was significant (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 2.88; χ2 =15.95, df=1, P=0.007). The main barriers to health care identified were waiting time long, affordability, poor quality of care, distance, and attitude of health workers. Conclusion: The underprivileged in India continue to have poor access to basic determinants of good health as well as to curative services from government sources during illness.
  7,645 869 9
REVIEW ARTICLE
A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents
S Gopalakrishnan
July-December 2012, 1(2):144-150
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.104987  PMID:24479025
Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.
  7,151 1,119 30
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors at a tertiary care teaching hospital in rural area of India
Purushottam A Giri, Jayant D Deshpande, Deepak B Phalke, Laximan B Karle
January-June 2012, 1(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.94452  PMID:24479001
Background: Blood transfusion is a life-saving measure in various medical and surgical emergencies. Transfusion medicine, apart from being important for the medical treatment of each patient, also has great public health importance. Objectives: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in voluntary blood donors at a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods : All voluntary donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HBsAg, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), HIV and Syphilis by using the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV infection was confirmed using a standard immunoblotting technique. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) was tested for surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV by the immunechromatographic method. The Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. The study was designed for a duration of two years between January 2009 to December 2010. Medical reports of the donors were accessed from the hospital records and analyzed. Results: A total of 5661 voluntary blood donors were screened, of which 5394 (95.28%) were males and 267 (4.72%) were females. The overall seroprevalence of HBV and HCV were 1.09% and 0.74% respectively; for HIV and syphilis the seroprevalence was estimated to be 0.07% for each. Conclusion: Blood is still one of the main sources of transmission of infections. HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses and syphilis are prevalent among voluntary donors in rural India.
  6,767 1,455 11
Assessment of physical disability using Barthel index among elderly of rural areas of district Jhansi (U.P), India
Shubhanshu Gupta, Rashmi Yadav, Anil Kumar Malhotra
October-December 2016, 5(4):853-857
DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.201178  PMID:28349004
Introduction: The health of the elderly will be an important issue defining the health status of a population. With the rise in aged population, there is a greater need to look into their physical disability aspects, which is otherwise neglected. The rationale behind the study is to assess the physical disability of the elderly living in rural area of Jhansi. The aims of the study were to study the prevalence of physical disability among the elderly of rural area, and to find out the factors and association affecting the physical disability. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a Baragaon block of rural area of Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India, from July 2015 to October 2015. Multistage random sampling was performed. A total of 265 participants of age 60 years and above were selected. Physical disability was assessed using Barthel index. Appropriate data entry and statistical analysis were done in EpiInfo. Frequency tables were used to calculate the prevalence, and Chi-square test was used to find out the association. Results: The overall prevalence of physical disability was 23.4%. 70% belongs to the age group from 60 to 69 years. Physical disability was significantly higher among age group >80 years. Similarly, women were more affected with physical disability than men. Conclusions: High prevalence of physical disability is the major area of concern. More extensive postdischarge health facilities to be provided to elderly.
  7,861 342 2
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