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 Table of Contents 
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 187-192  

Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

1 Phd Scholar, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Senior Resident, Department of Pediatrics, Vardhmann Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Research Scientist, Human Nutrition Unit, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
5 CMO In Charge Emergency, Department of Clinical Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
6 Epidemiologist and Public Health Specialist, Department of Clinical Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication8-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
Epidemiologist and Public Health Specialist, Department of Clinical Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.154628

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Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

Keywords: Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight

How to cite this article:
Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Family Med Prim Care 2015;4:187-92

How to cite this URL:
Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Sep 19];4:187-92. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2015/4/2/187/154628

  Introduction Top

The world is undergoing a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition characterized by persistent nutritional deficiencies, as evidenced by the prevalence of stunting, anemia, and iron and zinc deficiencies. Concomitantly, there is a progressive rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and other nutrition related chronic diseases (NRCDs) like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. Obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well. [1] Females are more likely to be obese as compared to males, owing to inherent hormonal differences. [2]

It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. [3] There has been a phenomenal rise in proportions of children having obesity in the last 4 decades, especially in the developed world. Studies emerging from different parts of India within last decade are also indicative of similar trend. [4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] This view has been challenged over recent years and we presently consider these as different forms of the global malnutrition problem. This new conceptualization leads us to simultaneously address the root causes of nutritional deficiencies which in turn will contribute to the control of under nutrition and the prevention of obesity, diabetes, and other NRCDs. This summary provides a public health overview of selected key issues related to the prevention of obesity and chronic diseases with a life-course perspective of nutrition and child growth.

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Globally in 2010, the number of overweight children under the age of five is estimated to be over 42 million. Close to 35 million of these are living in developing countries.

  Definition of Childhood Obesity Top

Although definition of obesity and overweight has changed over time, it can be defined as an excess of body fat (BF). There is no consensus on a cut-off point for excess fatness of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. A study by conducted by Williams et al. (1992), on 3,320 children in the age-group of 5-18 years classified children as fat if their percentage of body fat was at least 25% for males and 30% for females, respectively. [10] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention defined overweight as at or above the 95 th percentile of body mass index (BMI) for age and "at risk for overweight" as between 85 th to 95 th percentile of BMI for age. [11],[12] European researchers classified overweight as at or above 85 th percentile and obesity as at or above 95 th percentile of BMI. [13]

An Indian research study has defined overweight and obesity as overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile) and obesity (≥95 th percentile). [14] Another study has followed World Health Organization 2007 growth reference for defining overweight and obesity. [15]

There are also several methods to measure the percentage of body fat. In research, techniques include underwater weighing (densitometry), multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the clinical environment, techniques such as BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Although, these methods are less accurate than research methods, they are satisfactory to identify risk. While BMI seems appropriate for differentiating adults, it may not be as useful in children because of their changing body shape as they progress through normal growth. In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass (muscle and bone) and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children. Furthermore, maturation pattern differs between genders and different ethnic groups. Studies that used BMI to identify overweight and obese children based on percentage of body fat have found high specificity (95-100%), but low sensitivity (36-66%) for this system of classification. [16] While health consequences of obesity are related to excess fatness, the ideal method of classification should be based on direct measurement of fatness. Although methods such as densitometry can be used in research practice, they are not feasible for clinical settings. For large population-based studies and clinical situations, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widely used. Waist circumference seems to be more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is a risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease.

  Causes of Childhood Obesity Top

It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. Research has made important contributions to our understanding of the factors associated with obesity. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al., suggests that child risk factors for obesity include dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. [17] The impact of such risk factors is moderated by factors such as age, gender. Family characteristics parenting style, parents' lifestyles also play a role. Environmental factors such as school policies, demographics, and parents' work-related demands further influence eating and activity behaviors.

Genetics are one of the biggest factors examined as a cause of obesity. Some studies have found that BMI is 25-40% heritable. [18] However, genetic susceptibility often needs to be coupled with contributing environmental and behavioral factors in order to affect weight. [19] The genetic factor accounts for less than 5% of cases of childhood obesity. [18] Therefore, while genetics can play a role in the development of obesity, it is not the cause of the dramatic increase in childhood obesity.

Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity. Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's expenditure of energy for normal resting functions. Basal metabolic rate is accountable for 60% of total energy expenditure in sedentary adults. It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. However, differences in basal metabolic rates are not likely to be responsible for the rising rates of obesity. [18]

Review of the literature investigates factors behind poor diet and offers numerous insights into how parental factors may impact on obesity in children. [20] They note that children learn by modeling parents' and peers' preferences, intake and willingness to try new foods. Availability of, and repeated exposure to, healthy foods is key to developing preferences and can overcome dislike of foods. Mealtime structure is important with evidence suggesting that families who eat together consume more healthy foods. Furthermore, eating out or watching TV while eating is associated with a higher intake of fat. Parental feeding style is also significant. The author's found that authoritative feeding (determining which foods are offered, allowing the child to choose, and providing rationale for healthy options) is associated with positive cognitions about healthy foods and healthier intake. Interestingly authoritarian restriction of "junk-food" is associated with increased desire for unhealthy food and higher weight. [21]

Government and social policies could also potentially promote healthy behavior. Research indicates taste, followed by hunger and price, is the most important factor in adolescents snack choices. [22] Other studies demonstrate that adolescents associate junk food with pleasure, independence, and convenience, whereas liking healthy food is considered odd. [23] This suggests investment is required in changing meanings of food, and social perceptions of eating behavior. As proposed by the National Taskforce on Obesity (2005), fiscal policies such as taxing unhealthy options, providing incentives for the distribution of inexpensive healthy food, and investing in convenient recreational facilities or the esthetic quality of neighborhoods can enhance healthy eating and physical activity. [24]

Dietary factors have been studied extensively for its possible contributions to the rising rates of obesity. The dietary factors that have been examined include fast food consumption, sugary beverages, snack foods, and portion sizes.

Fast food Consumption: Increased fast food consumption has been linked with obesity in the recent years. Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive. [25] Foods served at fast food restaurants tend to contain a high number of calories with low nutritional values. A study conducted examined the eating habits of lean and overweight adolescents at fast food restaurants. [26] Researchers found that both groups consumed more calories eating fast food than they would typically in a home setting but the lean group compensated for the higher caloric intake by adjusting their caloric intake before or after the fast food meal in anticipation or compensation for the excess calories consumed during the fast food meal. Though many studies have shown weight gain with regular consumption of fast food, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between fast food and obesity.

Sugary beverages

A study examining children aged 9-14 from 1996-1998, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over the years. [18] Sugary drinks are another factor that has been examined as a potential contributing factor to obesity. Sugary drinks are often thought of as being limited to soda, but juice and other sweetened beverages fall into this category. Many studies have examined the link between sugary drink consumption and weight and it has been continually found to be a contributing factor to being overweight. [18] Sugary drinks are less filling than food and can be consumed quicker, which results in a higher caloric intake. [19]

Snack foods

Another factor that has been studied as a possible contributing factor of childhood obesity is the consumption of snack foods. Snack foods include foods such as chips, baked goods, and candy. Many studies have been conducted to examine whether these foods have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity. While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight. [18]

Portion size

Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade. Consuming large portions, in addition to frequent snacking on highly caloric foods, contribute to an excessive caloric intake. This energy imbalance can cause weight gain, and consequently obesity. [18]

Activity level

One of the factors that is most significantly linked to obesity is a sedentary lifestyle. Each additional hour of television per day increased the prevalence of obesity by 2%. [18] Television viewing among young children and adolescents has increased dramatically in recent years. [18],[27] The increased amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors has decreased the amount of time spent in physical activity. Research which indicates the number of hours children spend watching TV correlates with their consumption of the most advertised goods, including sweetened cereals, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks. [22] Despite difficulties in empirically assessing the media impact, other research discussed emphasizes that advertising effects should not be underestimated. Media effects have been found for adolescent aggression and smoking and formation of unrealistic body ideals. Regulation of marketing for unhealthy foods is recommended, as is media advocacy to promote healthy eating.

Environmental factors

While extensive television viewing and the use of other electronic media has contributed to the sedentary lifestyles, other environmental factors have reduced the opportunities for physical activity. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. The majority of children in the past walked or rode their bike to school. A study conducted in 2002 found that 53% of parents drove their children to school. [18] Of these parents, 66% said they drove their children to school since their homes were too far away from the school. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child. [18] Children who live in unsafe areas or who do not have access to safe, well-lit walking routes have fewer opportunities to be physically active. [18]

Socio-cultural factors

Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity. Our society tends to use food as a reward, as a means to control others, and as part of socializing. [28] These uses of food can encourage the development of unhealthy relationships with food, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity.

Family factors

Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity. The types of food available in the house and the food preferences of family members can influence the foods that children eat. In addition, family mealtimes can influence the type of food consumed and the amount thereof. Lastly, family habits, whether they are sedentary or physically active, influence the child. [28] Studies have shown that having an overweight mother and living in a single parent household are associated with overweight and childhood obesity. [29]

Psychological factors

Depression and anxiety

A recent review concluded that the majority of studies find a prospective relationship between eating disturbances and depression. [30] However, this relationship is not unidirectional; depression may be both a cause and a consequence of obesity. [31] Additionally, in a clinical sample of obese adolescents, a higher life-time prevalence of anxiety disorders was reported compared to non-obese controls. [32] Although some studies demonstrate no significant relationship between increased BMI and increased anxiety symptoms. [33] Thus, the relationship between obesity and anxiety may not be unidirectional and is certainly not conclusive.


Research findings comparing overweight/obese children with normal-weight children in regards to self-esteem have been mixed. [34] Some studies have found that obese children have lower self-esteem while others do not. [35],[36],[37] There is some consensus in the literature that the global approach to self-esteem measurement with children who are overweight/obese is misleading as the physical and social domains of self-esteem seem to be where these children are most vulnerable. [38]

Body dissatisfaction

Research has consistently found that body satisfaction is higher in males than females at all ages. [39] Gender differences may reflect the westernized cultural ideals of beauty in that thinness is the only culturally defined ideal for females, while males are encouraged to be both lean and muscular. Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. [40],[41]

Eating disorder symptoms

Traits associated with eating disorders appear to be common in adolescent obese populations, particularly for girls. [42] A number of studies have shown higher prevalence of eating-related pathology (i.e. Anorexia, Bulimia Nervosa, and impulse regulation) in obese children/youth. [43],[44]

Emotional problems

In one of the few studies to investigate the psychological impact of being overweight/obese in children, a review of 10 published studies over a 10-year period (1995-2005) with sample sizes greater than 50 revealed that all participants reported some level of psychosocial impact as a result of their weight status. [45] Being younger, female, and with an increased perceived lack of control over eating seemed to heighten the psychosocial consequences.

Consequences of childhood obesity

Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. These potential consequences are further examined in the following sections.

Medical consequences

Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions. These conditions include, but are not limited to, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hepatic steatosis (fatty liver disease), cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, cholelithiasis (gallstones), glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, skin conditions, menstrual abnormalities, impaired balance, and orthopedic problems. [25],[46] Until recently, many of the above health conditions had only been found in adults; now they are extremely prevalent in obese children. Although most of the physical health conditions associated with childhood obesity are preventable and can disappear when a child or adolescent reaches a healthy weight, some continue to have negative consequences throughout adulthood. [46] In the worst cases, some of these health conditions can even result in death. Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease.

Socio-emotional consequences

In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. Obesity has been described as being "one of the most stigmatizing and least socially acceptable conditions in childhood." [38] Overweight and obese children are often teased and/or bullied for their weight. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. [46] Discrimination against obese individuals has been found in children as young as 2 years old. [28] Obese children are often excluded from activities, particularly competitive activities that require physical activity. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath. [25] These negative social problems contribute to low self esteem, low self confidence, and a negative body image in children and can also affect academic performance. [46] All of the above-mentioned negative effects of overweight and obesity can be devastating to children and adolescents.

The social consequences of obesity may contribute to continuing difficulty in weight management. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort. In addition, children who are overweight tend to have fewer friends than normal weight children, which results in less social interaction and play, and more time spent in sedentary activities. [25] As aforementioned, physical activity is often more difficult for overweight and obese children as they tend to get shortness of breath and often have a hard time keeping up with their peers. This in turn inevitably results in weight gain, as the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of energy burned. [25]

Academic consequences

Childhood obesity has also been found to negatively affect school performance. A research study concluded that overweight and obese children were four times more likely to report having problems at school than their normal weight peers. [38] They are also more likely to miss school more frequently, especially those with chronic health conditions such as diabetes and asthma, which can also affect academic performance.

  Conclusion Top

The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. There are many components that play into childhood obesity, some being more crucial than others. A combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. What children learn at home about eating healthy, exercising and making the right nutritional choices will eventually spill over into other aspects of their life. This will have the biggest influence on the choices kids make when selecting foods to consume at school and fast-food restaurants and choosing to be active. Focusing on these causes may, over time, decrease childhood obesity and lead to a healthier society as a whole.

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94 Delivering Group Lifestyle Triple P through digital practice: A case study with Portuguese parents
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97 Cord Blood Adipocytokines and Body Composition in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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98 Exposure of children to television food advertisements: an observational analysis
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101 Is store density associated with sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and overweight or obesity in Mexican adolescents?
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103 Are We Neglecting Nutrition in UK Medical Training? A Quantitative Analysis of Nutrition-Related Education in Postgraduate Medical Training Curriculums
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104 Annual rhythms in adults’ lifestyle and health (ARIA): protocol for a 12-month longitudinal study examining temporal patterns in weight, activity, diet, and wellbeing in Australian adults
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106 From the pandemic to the pan: the impact of COVID-19 on parental inclusion of children in cooking activities: a cross-continental survey
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107 Physiotherapy and related management for childhood obesity: A systematic scoping review
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108 Childhood Daily Energy Expenditure Does Not Decrease with Market Integration and Is Not Related to Adiposity in Amazonia
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109 Emotional Regulation and Overeating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
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110 Psychometric Properties of the Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs Scale for Adolescents
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111 Comparative Analysis of Metabolite Profiling of Momordica charantia Leaf and the Anti-Obesity Effect through Regulating Lipid Metabolism
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112 Emotion dysregulation and pediatric obesity: investigating the role of Internet addiction and eating behaviors on this relationship in an adolescent sample
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113 Association of class number, cumulative exposure, and earlier initiation of antibiotics during the first two-years of life with subsequent childhood obesity
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115 The Homeostatic Theory of Obesity: An Empirical Verification of the Circle of Discontent with an Assessment of Its Relationship to Restrained and Uncontrolled Eating among Children and Adolescents
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116 Effect of culinary education curriculum on Mediterranean diet adherence and food cost savings in families: a randomised controlled trial
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120 Climate and location as determinants of childhood stunting, wasting and overweight. An application of semi-parametric multivariate probit model
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121 Funcionalidad familiar, crianza parental y su relación con el estado nutricional en preescolares
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123 Multicomponent intervention effect on cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight/obese Brazilian children: a mediation analysis
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124 Familism, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Specific Quality of Life Among Latinx Adolescents With Obesity
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126 Primary prevention of overweight and obesity in adolescents: An overview of systematic reviews
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127 An account of disproportionate child healthcare utilization in Nigeria
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128 Dietary Patterns of Adolescents from the Chilean Growth and Obesity Cohort Study Indicate Poor Dietary Quality
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129 The impact of childhood obesity on human capital in high-income countries: A systematic review
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130 Malnutrition status of children under 5 years in Bangladesh: A sociodemographic assessment
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132 Overweight and Obesity Coexist with Thinness among Lao’s Urban Area Adolescents
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133 Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Child Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire for primary and secondary school students
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134 The relevance of body mass index in forensic age assessment of living individuals: an age-adjusted linear regression analysis using multivariable fractional polynomials
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135 Methodological approaches to the design and analysis of nonrandomized intervention studies for the prevention of child and adolescent obesity
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136 Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of The Daily Mile on childhood weight outcomes and wellbeing: a cluster randomised controlled trial
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137 Factors Influencing the Early Introduction of Sugar Sweetened Beverages among Infants: Findings from the HSHK Birth Cohort Study
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138 Can the Consumption of Ultra-Processed Food Be Associated with Anthropometric Indicators of Obesity and Blood Pressure in Children 7 to 10 Years Old?
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139 Eating behavior affects cardio-metabolic risk in high school teenagers in a developing country
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140 Corneal Biomechanical Properties in Childhood Obesity
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142 Can Physical Activity in Immersive Virtual Reality Be Attractive and Have Sufficient Intensity to Meet Health Recommendations for Obese Children? A Pilot Study
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143 Insatisfação com o peso corporal e estado nutricional de adolescentes: estudo de base populacional no município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil
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144 Targeting childhood obesity through primary schools: reviewing alignment amongst English policies for physical activity and healthy eating
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145 Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the addiction-like eating behavior scale for university students
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146 A Model of Pedometer Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children
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147 The Effects of Foods Embedded in Entertainment Media on Children’s Food Choices and Food Intake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
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148 Environmental, Socioeconomic, Maternal, and Breastfeeding Factors Associated with Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Ceará, Brazil: A Population-Based Study
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149 Snack food consumption among Bangladeshi children, supplementary data from a large RCT
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150 Abnormal body weight and food-related behavior in school-aged children as measured by the Children’s Binge Eating Disorder Scale
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151 Meanings assigned by families about children’s chronic disease diagnosis
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152 The Association between Reported Dental Pain Symptoms and Increased BMI in Indonesia: Evidence From The Indonesian Family Life Survey
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153 The Rise in Pediatric Obesity-Related Conditions and Costs in Public Insurance Programs: Evidence from Alabama
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154 Malnutrition prevalence among children and women of reproductive age in Mexico by wealth, education level, urban/rural area and indigenous ethnicity
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155 Educational Intervention of Intention Change for Consumption of Junk Food among School Adolescents in Birgunj Metropolitan City, Nepal, Based on Theory of Planned Behaviors
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157 Centre-based care is a significant predictor of lower body mass index in early childhood: Longitudinal evidence from Chile
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158 Correlation between body mass index, neck circumference, and waist-hip ratio as indicators of obesity among a cohort of adolescent in Bahrain
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159 The influence of socioeconomic status and age on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 5 to 10-year-old children in Curitiba, Brazil
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160 Altered metabolomic profiling of overweight and obese adolescents after combined training is associated with reduced insulin resistance
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161 Study of the effect of family communication and function, and satisfaction with body image, on psychological well-being of obese girls: the mediating role of self-esteem and depression
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162 Latent Profiles of Health Behaviors in Rural Children with Overweight and Obesity
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163 Reframing the early childhood obesity prevention narrative through an equitable nurturing approach
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165 An exploration of constructs related to dissemination and implementation of an early childhood systems-level intervention
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166 High sugar content and body mass index: modelling pathways around the first 1000 d of life, BRISA cohort
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168 Efficacy and acceptability of a web platform to teach nutrition education to children
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169 A systematic review examining the relationship between food insecurity and early childhood physiological health outcomes
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181 Fazla Kilolu ve Obez Adölesanlarda Motivasyonel Görüsme Tekniginin Kullanimi
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239 CD36 gene polymorphism -31118 G > A (rs1761667) is associated with overweight and obesity but not with fat preferences in Mexican children
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274 Comorbidity, Codevelopment, and Temporal Associations Between Body Mass Index and Internalizing Symptoms From Early Childhood to Adolescence
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JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;
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275 Extra-familial social factors and obesity in the Hispanic Community Children’s Health Study/Study of Latino Youth
Julia I. Bravin,Angela P. Gutierrez,Jessica L. McCurley,Scott C. Roesch,Carmen R. Isasi,Alan M. Delamater,Krista M. Perreira,Linda Van Horn,Sheila F. Castañeda,Elizabeth R. Pulgaron,Gregory A. Talavera,Martha L. Daviglus,Maria Lopez-Class,Donglin Zeng,Linda C. Gallo
Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2019;
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276 Maternal restrictive feeding practices for child weight control and associated characteristics
Fabrícia R. Freitas,Denise E.B. Moraes,Sarah Warkentin,Laís A. Mais,Júlia F. Ivers,José Augusto A.C. Taddei
Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português). 2019; 95(2): 201
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277 MOVI-daFIT! Intervention
Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno,Celia Álvarez-Bueno,Iván Cavero-Redondo,Diana P. Pozuelo-Carrascosa,Miriam Garrido-Miguel,Jose Alberto Martínez-Hortelano,Vanesa Martínez-Madrid,Enrique Prada de Medio,Mairena Sánchez-López
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278 Factors Associated With Leisure Time Physical Activity Among Schoolchildren in a Predominantly Latino Community
Anne L. Escaron,Celia Vega-Herrera,Neil Steers,Jane Chung,Corina Martinez,Michael Hochman,Marielena Lara
Journal of School Health. 2019;
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279 Health behavior knowledge among Hispanic California islanders: Evaluation of a parental educational intervention
Karla Parsons,Elaine M. Rutkowski,Ofir Turel
Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 2019; 24(1): e12235
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280 Children’s pester power, packaging and unhealthy food preference
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Young Consumers. 2019; 21(1): 35
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281 Cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed sleep duration with physical activity, BMI and television viewing in German primary school children
Susanne Kobel,Olivia Wartha,Jens Dreyhaupt,Sarah Kettner,Jürgen M. Steinacker
BMC Pediatrics. 2019; 19(1)
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282 Association between grandparent coresidence and weight change among first-grade Japanese children
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Pediatric Obesity. 2019; : e12524
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283 One- and Two-Year Effects of the Healthy Primary School of the Future on Children’s Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviours: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Nina H.M. Bartelink,Patricia van Assema,Stef P.J. Kremers,Hans H.C.M. Savelberg,Marije Oosterhoff,Maartje Willeboordse,Onno C.P. van Schayck,Bjorn Winkens,Maria W.J. Jansen
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3): 689
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284 Associations of extracurricular physical activity patterns and body composition components in a multi-ethnic population of UK children (the Size and Lung Function in Children study): a multilevel modelling analysis
Lander S. M. M. Bosch,Jonathan C. K. Wells,Sooky Lum,Alice M. Reid
BMC Public Health. 2019; 19(1)
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285 The influence of a developmental disability on the childæs weight-related behaviors: A parentæs perspective
Michele Polfuss,Caitlin Dobson,Kathleen J. Sawin,Carol G. Klingbeil
Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2019; 47: 121
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286 Youth physical health and years in American homeschools: are they related?
Laura S Kabiri,Allison Butcher,Wayne Brewer,Alexis Ortiz
Health Promotion International. 2019;
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287 Increased acute postoperative wound problems following spinal fusion in overweight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
Ryan D. Snowden,Vincent W. Prusick,Donna J. Oeffinger,Henry J. Iwinski,Ryan D. Muchow
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B. 2019; 28(4): 374
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288 Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on nutrition improvement and weight of overweight and obese adolescents: A randomized controlled trial
Seyedeh Fatemeh Miri,Maryam Javadi,Chung-Ying Lin,Mark D. Griffiths,Maria Björk,Amir H. Pakpour
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019;
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289 The health challenges of families experiencing homelessness
Bridget Osei Henewaah Annor,Abe Oudshoorn
Housing, Care and Support. 2019; 22(2): 93
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290 The Impact of Following Solid Food Feeding Guides on BMI Among Infants: A Simulation Study
Marie C. Ferguson,Kelly J. OæShea,Lawrence D. Hammer,Daniel L. Hertenstein,Nathaniel J. Schwartz,Lucas E. Winch,Sheryl S. Siegmund,Bruce Y. Lee
American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019;
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291 Health-related quality of life in adolescents with excess weight
Helen F. D’avila,Fabiana A. Poll,Cézane P. Reuter,Miria S. Burgos,Elza D. Mello
Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português). 2019; 95(4): 495
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292 Effect of the Resistance Exercise on Elementary School Students’ Physical Fitness
You Fu,Ryan D. Burns,Nora Constantino,Jim Fitzsimmons,Peng Zhang
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. 2019;
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293 Structural connectivity and weight loss in children with obesity: a study of the “connectobese”
Mireille J. C. M. Augustijn,Maria A. Di Biase,Andrew Zalesky,Lore Van Acker,Ann De Guchtenaere,Eva D’Hondt,Matthieu Lenoir,Frederik J. A. Deconinck,Karen Caeyenberghs
International Journal of Obesity. 2019;
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294 Change in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities associated with body mass index improvement through life-style intervention: A meta-regression
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Pediatric Diabetes. 2019;
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295 The Impact of Front-of-Package Traffic Light (Foptl) in the Senior High School Students’ Nutrition Labels Comprehension
Retno D., Fatmah
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2019; 7(3): 918
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296 Contribution of foods to absolute nutrient intake and between-person variations of nutrient intake in Korean preschoolers
Minji Kang,Jae Eun Shim,Kyungmin Kwon,SuJin Song
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2019; 13(4): 323
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297 Impact of obese levels on the hepatic expression of nuclear receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes in adult and offspring mice
Pei Wang,Xueyan Shao,Yifan Bao,Junjie Zhu,Liming Chen,Lirong Zhang,Xiaochao Ma,Xiao-bo Zhong
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 2019;
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298 Investigating the Relationship Between Weight-Related Self-Stigma and Mental Health for Overweight/Obese Children in Hong Kong
Ka Lam Chan,Clara S.C. Lee,Cho Man Cheng,Lok Yiu Hui,Wan Tung So,Tik Shun Yu,Chung-Ying Lin
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2019; 207(8): 637
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299 Impact of intervention on nutritional status, consumption of processed foods, and quality of life of adolescents with excess weight
Fabiana A. Poll,Fernanda Miraglia,Helen F. D’avila,Cézane P. Reuter,Elza D. Mello
Jornal de Pediatria. 2019;
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300 Association between grandparent co-residence, socioeconomic status and dental caries among early school-aged children in Japan: A population-based prospective study
Ayako Morita,Yusuke Matsuyama,Aya Isumi,Satomi Doi,Manami Ochi,Takeo Fujiwara
Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1)
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301 The sugar content of children’s and lunchbox beverages sold in the UK before and after the soft drink industry levy
Bernard T. Y. Chu,Cristina P. Irigaray,Sarah E. Hillier,Miriam E. Clegg
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019;
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302 Prevalence of overweight among youth with chronic conditions in the United States: An update from the 2016 National Survey of Childrenæs Health
Justin A. Haegele,John T. Foley,Sean Healy,Alexis Paller
Pediatric Obesity. 2019;
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303 Are Movement Behaviors and Fundamental Motor Skills Associated With Fitness and Fatness in Early Childhood? Findings From the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey
Xiaoxia Zhang,Xiangli Gu,Tao Zhang,Priscila Caçola,Jing Wang
Pediatric Exercise Science. 2019; : 1
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304 Obesity and muscle-macrophage crosstalk in humans and mice: A systematic review
Srikesh Rudrapatna,Meha Bhatt,Kuan-Wen Wang,Rachel Bierbrier,Pei-Wen Wang,Laura Banfield,Wagdi Elsheikh,E. Danielle Sims,Devin Peterson,Lehana Thabane,Mark A. Tarnopolsky,Gregory R. Steinberg,M. Constantine Samaan
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305 Personalizing the Dietary Guidelines: use of a feedback report to help adolescent students plan health behaviors using a SMART goal approach
Sarah Martin,Moonseong Heo,Camille C Jimenez,Jean Lim,David W. Lounsbury,Lynn Fredericks,Michelle Bouchard,Tara Herrera,April Sosa,Judith Wylie-Rosett
Child and Adolescent Obesity. 2019; 2(1): 47
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306 Effect of Curcumin and a-Lipoic Acid in Attenuating Weight Gain and Adiposity
Evgeniy Panzhinskiy,Raza Bashir,Debasis Bagchi,Sreejayan Nair
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2019; : 1
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307 Psychomotor Limitations of Overweight and Obese Five-Year-Old Children: Influence of Body Mass Indices on Motor, Perceptual, and Social-Emotional Skills
Pedro Gil Madrona,Sonia Romero Martínez,Nieves Sáez-Gallego,Xavier Ordóñez Camacho
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3): 427
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308 Health risk behaviors, violence exposure, and current asthma among adolescents in the United States
Yueh-Ying Han,Erick Forno,Juan C. Celedón
Pediatric Pulmonology. 2019;
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309 Helping With Meal Preparation and Children’s Dietary Intake: A Literature Review
Susan B. Quelly
The Journal of School Nursing. 2019; 35(1): 51
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310 Socio-Demographic Factors and Body Image Perception Are Associated with BMI-For-Age among Children Living in Welfare Homes in Selangor, Malaysia
Nur A Rahim,Yit Chin,Norhasmah Sulaiman
Nutrients. 2019; 11(1): 142
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311 Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Are Positively Associated With Academic Performance: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
Rodrigo Antunes Lima,Karin A. Pfeiffer,Niels Christian Møller,Lars Bo Andersen,Anna Bugge
Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2019; : 1
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312 Cardiorespiratory Fitness Cut-Points are Related to Body Adiposity Parameters in Latin American Adolescents
Daniel Humberto Prieto-Benavides,Antonio García-Hermoso,Mikel Izquierdo,Alicia María Alonso-Martínez,César Agostinis-Sobrinho,Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista,Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
Medicina. 2019; 55(9): 508
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313 Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-Food Consumption: A Meta-Analysis of Global School-Based Student Health Surveys
Ty Beal,Saul S. Morris,Alison Tumilowicz
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2019; 40(4): 444
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314 Call for action
Andrea Bushaw
The Nurse Practitioner. 2019; 44(9): 11
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315 Mother and Father Controlling Feeding Behaviors and Associations With Observed Mealtime Family Functioning
Sarah C Westen,Tarrah B Mitchell,Sarah Mayer-Brown,Alana Resmini Rawlinson,Ke Ding,David M Janicke
Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2019;
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316 Associations between combined overweight and obesity, lifestyle behavioural risk and quality of life among Australian regional school children: baseline findings of the Goulburn Valley health behaviours monitoring study
Erin Hoare,Nicholas Crooks,Joshua Hayward,Steven Allender,Claudia Strugnell
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2019; 17(1)
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317 Disturbed eating behaviours do not impact treatment response in a paediatric obesity chronic care treatment programme
Mette Fogh,Morten AV Lund,Pernille M Mollerup,Mia Ø Johansen,Rikke H Melskens,Cæcilie Trier,Julie T Kloppenborg,Torben Hansen,Jens-Christian Holm
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2019;
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318 On the horizon of aging and physical activity research
Jennifer M. Jakobi,Jerome A. Dempsey,Ylva Hellsten,Richard Monette,Jayne M. Kalmar
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2019; : 1
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319 The Dynamic Relationship Between Asthma and Obesity in Schoolchildren
Yue Zhang,Zhanghua Chen,Kiros Berhane,Robert Urman,Vaia Lida Chatzi,Carrie Breton,Frank D Gilliland
American Journal of Epidemiology. 2019;
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320 Antibiotic and acid-suppression medications during early childhood are associated with obesity
Christopher M Stark,Apryl Susi,Jill Emerick,Cade M Nylund
Gut. 2019; 68(1): 62
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321 Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder
Seán Healy,Carrie J Aigner,Justin A Haegele
Autism. 2019; 23(4): 1046
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322 Psychological well-being and weight-related teasing in childhood obesity: a case–control study
M. Blanco,S. Solano,A. I. Alcántara,M. Parks,F. J. Román,A. R. Sepúlveda
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 2019;
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323 A Report of Health Related Anthropometric Indices in 2–5 Years Old Children of Golestan Province of Iran in 2015
Arefe Khaksar Jalali,Ahmadreza Dorosty Motlagh,Zahra Abdollahi,Ariyo Movahedi,Mina Minaie,Behnood Abbasi
Clinical Nutrition Research. 2019; 8(2): 119
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324 Associations between Physical Activity and Food Intake among Children and Adolescents: Results of KiGGS Wave 2
Kristin Manz,Gert B. M. Mensink,Jonas D. Finger,Marjolein Haftenberger,Anna-Kristin Brettschneider,Clarissa Lage Barbosa,Susanne Krug,Anja Schienkiewitz
Nutrients. 2019; 11(5): 1060
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325 Monogenic leptin deficiency in early childhood obesity
Gehan ElSaeed,Noha Mousa,Fatma El-Mougy,Mona Hafez,Seham Khodeera,Mohamed Alhelbawy,Engy Fouda,Suzan Elsheikh,Rasha ElKaffas,Sara Eldeeb,Marwa Elsharkawy
Pediatric Obesity. 2019;
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326 Unravelling the Effects of the Healthy Primary School of the Future: For Whom and Where Is It Effective?
Nina Bartelink,Patricia van Assema,Stef Kremers,Hans Savelberg,Dorus Gevers,Maria Jansen
Nutrients. 2019; 11(9): 2119
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327 Validity and Reliability of a Korean Version of Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (YFAS-C)
Jung Ho Kim,Ji Hyun Song,Ran Kim,Mi Young Jang,Hyon Joo Hong,Hyun Ji Kim,Sung Hee Shin
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2019; 49(1): 59
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328 Parent and School-Age Childrenæs Food Preparation Cognitions and Behaviors Guide Recommendations for Future Interventions
Melissa D. Olfert,Rebecca L. Hagedorn,Miriam P. Leary,Kaitlyn Eck,Karla P. Shelnutt,Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2019;
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329 A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of an Intervention to Increase Physical Activity of Preschool-Aged Children Attending Early Childhood Education and Care: Study Protocol for the ‘Everybody Energise’ Trial
Tessa Delaney,Jacklyn K. Jackson,Jannah Jones,Alix Hall,Ashleigh Dives,Taya Wedesweiler,Libby Campbell,Nicole Nathan,Maria Romiti,Stewart G. Trost,Melanie Lum,Yeshe Colliver,Lara Hernandez,Sze Lin Yoong
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21): 4275
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330 The Association between Early Childhood and Later Childhood Sugar-Containing Beverage Intake: A Prospective Cohort Study
Helena Blazun Ziesmann,Helena Blazun Kiflen,Helena Blazun Rubeis,Helena Blazun Smith,Helena Blazun Maguire on behalf of the TARGet Kids collaboration,Helena Blazun Birken,Helena Blazun Anderson
Nutrients. 2019; 11(10): 2338
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331 Prevalence and Predictors of Obesity among 7- to 17-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Urban Arusha, Tanzania
Haji Chomba,Haikael D. Martin,Judith Kimywe
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2019; 2019: 1
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332 Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the weight efficacy lifestyle questionnaire short-form for adolescents
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Current Psychology. 2019;
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333 Impact of lifestyle behaviors in early childhood on obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: Results from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study
Rowaedh Ahmed Bawaked,Sílvia Fernández-Barrés,Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz,Sandra González-Palacios,Mònica Guxens,Amaia Irizar,Aitana Lertxundi,Jordi Sunyer,Jesus Vioque,Helmut Schröder,Martine Vrijheid,Dora Romaguera
Pediatric Obesity. 2019;
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334 Obesity Predicts Liver Function Testing and Abnormal Liver Results
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Obesity. 2019;
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335 The Effect of Nurse-Led Diet and Physical Activity Program for Health on Diet and Physical Activity Behavior of Children
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Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2019; : 1
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336 Protective effect of Curcuma amada acetone extract against high-fat and high-sugar diet-induced obesity and memory impairment
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Nutritional Neuroscience. 2019; : 1
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337 Overweight and obesity in childhood: Dietary, biochemical, inflammatory and lifestyle risk factors
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Obesity Medicine. 2019; 15: 100112
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338 The Association of the Executive Functions with Overweight and Obesity Indicators in Children and Adolescents: A Literature Review
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Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2019;
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339 Dietary Guidelines Are Not Met by In-Home Child Care Providers in Low-Income Areas
Dawn S. Earnesty,Miya Hourani,Jean M. Kerver,Lorraine J. Weatherspoon
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2019;
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340 Different types of parental stress and childhood obesity: A systematic review of observational studies
Myoungock Jang,Brenda Owen,Diane R. Lauver
Obesity Reviews. 2019;
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341 Australian parentsæ experiences when discussing their childæs overweight and obesity with the Maternal and Child Health nurse: A qualitative study
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342 Association between obesity in 4- to 7-year-old children and eight types of crime: a hierarchical linear modelling approach
K. M. Benzies,M. T. Yates,A. B. Patel,A. R. Afzal,J. Kurilova,D. A. McNeil
Obesity Science & Practice. 2019; 5(2): 159
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343 Behavioral, contextual and biological factors associated with obesity during adolescence: A systematic review
Janine Narciso,António José Silva,Vitor Rodrigues,Maria João Monteiro,António Almeida,Raquel Saavedra,Aldo Matos Costa,Eliana Carraça
PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(4): e0214941
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344 First Physical Activity Report Card for Children and Youth in Lebanon
Patrick Abi Nader,Lina Majed,Susan Sayegh,Lama Mattar,Ruba Hadla,Marie Claire Chamieh,Carla Habib Mourad,Elie-Jacques Fares,Zeina Hawa,Mathieu Bélanger
Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2019; : 1
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345 Concordance between whole-body scan and half-body scan to evaluate body composition in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children and adolescents with different nutritional and pubertal conditions
Mariana Simões Ferreira,Fernando Augusto Lima Marson,Vaneza Lira Waldow Wolf,Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da Silva,Mariana Porto Zambon,Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro Antonio,José Dirceu Ribeiro,Roberto Teixeira Mendes
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346 Physical fitness and activity, metabolic profile, adipokines and endothelial function in children
Jociene Terra da Penha,Fernanda Mussi Gazolla,Cecília Noronha de Miranda Carvalho,Isabel Rey Madeira,Flávio Rodrigues-Júnior,Elisabeth de Amorim Machado,Fernando Lencastre Sicuro,Paulo Farinatti,Eliete Bouskela,Paulo Ferrez Collett-Solberg
Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português). 2019; 95(5): 531
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347 Pediatric Obesity and Eating Disorders Symptoms: The Role of the Multidisciplinary Treatment. A Systematic Review
Rachele De Giuseppe,Ilaria Di Napoli,Debora Porri,Hellas Cena
Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2019; 7
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Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2019; 8(24): 1914
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349 Predicting childhood obesity using electronic health records and publicly available data
Robert Hammond,Rodoniki Athanasiadou,Silvia Curado,Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs,Courtney Abrams,Mary Jo Messito,Rachel Gross,Michelle Katzow,Melanie Jay,Narges Razavian,Brian Elbel,Robert Moskovitch
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350 “It's Good, It's Delicious, It's Great”
Elena Santiago,Kaitlyn M. Eck,Colleen Delaney,Oluremi A. Famodu,Melissa D. Olfert,Karla P. Shelnutt,Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 2019; 34(2): 100
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351 NOSE
Pooya Khaloo,Brandon Oubre,Jeremy Yang,Tauhidur Rahman,Sunghoon Ivan Lee
Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies. 2019; 3(2): 1
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352 DIABRISK-SL trial: further consideration of age and impact of imputations
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BMC Medicine. 2019; 17(1)
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353 A randomized trial on the effects of CitrusiM® (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck dried extract) on body composition
Carolina Schettino Kegele,Julia Oliveira,Taiana Magrani,Aline Ferreira,Raquel de Souza Ferreira,Arman Sabbaghi,Anderson de Oliveira Ferreira,Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão,Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo,Hudson Caetano Polonini
Clinical Nutrition Experimental. 2019;
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354 Socioeconomic status, perceptions and obesity among adolescents in Jordan
Abdulhakeem Mahmoud Okour,Rami Abdullah Saadeh,Manar Hisham Hijazi,Hana Eyyad Al Khalaileh,Mahmoud Ahmad Alfaqih
Pan African Medical Journal. 2019; 34
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355 Multilevel analysis of BMI growth trajectories of US school children: Features and risk factors
Maria Stack Hankey,Yasuo Miyazaki
SSM - Population Health. 2019; : 100455
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356 “Fat Kids Are Adorable”: The Experiences of Mothers Caring for Overweight Children in Indonesia
Dina Nurpita Suprawoto,Happy Hayati,Imami Nur Rachmawati,Dessie Wanda
Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing. 2019; 42(sup1): 226
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357 The cross-sectional and prospective associations between sleep characteristics and adiposity in toddlers: Results from the GET UP! Study
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358 Short Sleep Duration and Later Overweight in Infants
Tuuli Tuohino,Isabel Morales-Muñoz,Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä,Olli Kiviruusu,Tiina Paunio,Petteri Hovi,Kirsi H. Pietiläinen,E. Juulia Paavonen
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359 Effects of social exclusion and maternal rejection on Childrenæs high-caloric food consumption
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360 Accuracy of Body Weight Estimation Among Palestinian Refugee Adolescents Living in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study
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361 High Maternal Body Mass Index Is Associated with an Early-Onset of Overweight/Obesity in Pre-School-Aged Children in Malawi. A Multilevel Analysis of the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey
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362 Physical fitness and activity, metabolic profile, adipokines and endothelial function in children
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Jornal de Pediatria. 2018;
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364 Development and initial validation evidence for a mindful eating questionnaire for children
Shelley R. Hart,Shannon Pierson,Keiko Goto,Joan Giampaoli
Appetite. 2018; 129: 178
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365 Teens Implementing a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in the Community: Feasibility and Perceptions of a Partnership with HSTA and iCook 4-H
Rebecca Hagedorn,Jade White,Lisa Franzen-Castle,Sarah Colby,Kendra Kattelmann,Adrienne White,Melissa Olfert
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(5): 934
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366 Health Disparities Score Composite of Youth and Parent Dyads from an Obesity Prevention Intervention: iCook 4-H
Melissa Olfert,Makenzie Barr,Rebecca Hagedorn,Lisa Franzen-Castle,Sarah Colby,Kendra Kattelmann,Adrienne White
Healthcare. 2018; 6(2): 51
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367 Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among children from primary schools in urban areas of Lomé, Togo
Herbert Sagbo,Didier Koumavi Ekouevi,Dorland Tafitarilova Ranjandriarison,Serge Niangoran,Tchaa Abalo Bakai,Agbelenko Afanvi,Sewu Dieudonné,Yao Kassankogno,Philippe Vanhems,Nagham Khanafer
Public Health Nutrition. 2018; : 1
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368 The INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention reduced infant weight gain and overweight status
Zoe Marshall,Caroline Delahunty
Archives of disease in childhood - Education & practice edition. 2018; 103(1): 57
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369 Changes in Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations From Child Participation in Bicycle Trains for Commuting to and From School
Cathy Huang,Andrew L. Dannenberg,Wren Haaland,Jason A. Mendoza
Health Education & Behavior. 2018; 45(5): 748
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370 Rural parents’ beliefs about healthy eating
Andrea E McDonald,Lenna Dawkins-Moultin,Sharon L McWhinney
Health Education Journal. 2018; 77(6): 705
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371 Prevalence of metabolically healthy obese phenotype and associated factors in South American overweight adolescents: a cross-sectional study
Jane Maria Remor,Wendell Arthur Lopes,João Carlos Locateli,Ronano Pereira Oliveira,Caroline Ferraz Simões,Carlos Andrés Lopera Barrero,Nelson Nardo Junior
Nutrition. 2018;
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372 Dietary behaviors throughout childhood are associated with adiposity and estimated insulin resistance in early adolescence: a longitudinal study
Véronique Gingras,Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman,Elsie M. Taveras,Emily Oken,Marie-France Hivert
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2018; 15(1)
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373 Content Analysis of Media Coverage of Childhood Obesity Topics in UAE Newspapers and Popular Social Media Platforms, 2014-2017
Niyi Awofeso,Sara Al Imam,Arwa Ahmed
International Journal of Health Policy and Management. 2018; 8(2): 81
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374 Mindfulness and psychological adjustment in paediatric obesity: The mediating role of body image
Daniela Ventura Fernandes,Maria João Gouveia,Maria Cristina Canavarro,Helena Moreira
Psychology, Community & Health. 2018; 7(1): 122
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375 A comparative analysis of socioeconomic inequities in stunting: a case of three middle-income African countries
Coretta M. P. Jonah,Winnie C. Sambu,Julian D. May
Archives of Public Health. 2018; 76(1)
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376 Validation of a child version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire in a Canadian sample: a psychometric tool for the evaluation of eating behaviour
Jaime-lee Yabsley,Katie E Gunnell,Eleanor J Bryant,Vicky Drapeau,David Thivel,Kristi B Adamo,Jean-Philippe Chaput
Public Health Nutrition. 2018; : 1
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377 Viewing obesogenic advertising in childrenæs neighbourhoods using Google Street View
Victoria Egli,Caryn Zinn,Lisa Mackay,Niamh Donnellan,Karen Villanueva,Suzanne Mavoa,Daniel J. Exeter,Stefanie Vandevijvere,Melody Smith
Geographical Research. 2018;
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378 Differences in Step Counts, Motor Competence, and Enjoyment Between an Exergaming Group and a Non-Exergaming Group
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Games for Health Journal. 2018;
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379 How Accurate Is Using Parent-Reported Height and Weight for Screening Children and Adolescents for Overweight and Obesity? Meta-Analyses at Both Population and Individual Levels
Jinbo He,Xitao Fan
Childhood Obesity. 2018; 14(5): 302
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380 Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol to develop an online video intervention for parents to prevent childhood obesity: Movie Models
Sara De Lepeleere,Maïté Verloigne,Helen Elizabeth Brown,Greet Cardon,Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
Global Health Promotion. 2018; 25(2): 56
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381 Health-related quality of life in adolescents with excess weight
Helen F. D’avila,Fabiana A. Poll,Cézane P. Reuter,Miria S. Burgos,Elza D. Mello
Jornal de Pediatria. 2018;
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382 Thirsty? Choose Water! Behavioural interventions and water stations in secondary schools a two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial
Nicole Kajons,Michael David,Justine Gowland-Ella,Peter Lewis,Samantha Batchelor
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1)
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Vaneza Lira Waldow Wolf,Juan Eduardo Samur-San-Martin,Suzy Ferreira de Sousa,Hemerson Dinis Oliveira Santos,Augusto Gerhart Folmann,Roberto Régis Ribeiro,Gil Guerra-Júnior
Revista Paulista de Pediatria. 2018;
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384 Using Anthropometric Indicator to Identify Hypertension in Adolescents: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia
Whye Lian Cheah,Ching Thon Chang,Helmy Hazmi,Grace Woei Feng Kho
International Journal of Hypertension. 2018; 2018: 1
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385 The iCook 4-H Study: Report on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Youth Participating in a Multicomponent Program Promoting Family Cooking, Eating, and Playing Together
Kendra K. Kattelmann,Jessica R. Meendering,Emily J. Hofer,Chase M. Merfeld,Melissa D. Olfert,Rebecca L. Hagedorn,Sarah E. Colby,Lisa Franzen-Castle,Jon Moyer,Douglas R. Mathews,Adrienne A. White
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2018;
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386 Association of Elective and Emergency Cesarean Delivery With Early Childhood Overweight at 12 Months of Age
Meijin Cai,See Ling Loy,Kok Hian Tan,Keith M. Godfrey,Peter D. Gluckman,Yap-Seng Chong,Lynette Pei-Chi Shek,Yin Bun Cheung,Ngee Lek,Yung Seng Lee,Shiao-Yng Chan,Jerry Kok Yen Chan,Fabian Yap,Seng Bin Ang
JAMA Network Open. 2018; 1(7): e185025
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387 Genetic Susceptibility for Childhood BMI has no Impact on Weight Loss Following Lifestyle Intervention in Danish Children
Mette Hollensted,Mette Fogh,Theresia M. Schnurr,Julie T. Kloppenborg,Christian T. Have,Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen,Johanne Rask,Morten Asp Vonsild Lund,Christine Frithioff-Bøjsøe,Mia Østergaard Johansen,Emil Vincent Rosenbaum Appel,Yuvaraj Mahendran,Niels Grarup,Haja N. Kadarmideen,Oluf Pedersen,Jens-Christian Holm,Torben Hansen
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388 Gut microbiota alterations and dietary modulation in childhood malnutrition – The role of short chain fatty acids
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez,Lars Ove Dragsted,Lena Kirchner Brahe
Clinical Nutrition. 2018;
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389 The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade
Agata Glapa,Joanna Grzesiak,Ida Laudanska-Krzeminska,Ming-Kai Chin,Christopher Edginton,Magdalena Mo Ching Mok,Michal Bronikowski
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(2): 368
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390 Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies
Martin J. Herrmann,Ann-Katrin Tesar,Jennifer Beier,Max Berg,Bodo Warrings
Obesity Reviews. 2018;
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391 Self-reported weight and predictors of missing response in youth
Magaly Aceves-Martins,Ross Whitehead,Jo Inchley,Montse Giralt,Candace Currie,Rosa Solà
Nutrition. 2018;
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392 Maternal restrictive feeding practices for child weight control and associated characteristics
Fabrícia R. Freitas,Denise E.B. Moraes,Sarah Warkentin,Laís A. Mais,Júlia F. Ivers,José Augusto A.C. Taddei
Jornal de Pediatria. 2018;
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393 Qualitative perspectives on a family group intervention program for improving physical wellness
Deanna Linville,Valerie Savercool,Sarai Barrera,Brianna Mintz,Samantha Shune
Journal of Family Psychotherapy. 2018; : 1
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394 Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods
Yu-Chin Koo,Jung-Su Chang,Yi Chun Chen,Imelda K. Moise
PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(2): e0191982
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395 Relationship between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity and Multiple Lifestyle Factors in Children
Michael Sheldrick,Richard Tyler,Kelly Mackintosh,Gareth Stratton
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2018; 3(1): 15
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396 The Associations Between Screen Time, Sleep Duration, and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Under Five-Year-Old Children
Hossein Sourtiji,Seyed Ali Hosseini,Mehdi Rassafiani,Amir Kohan,Mehdi Noroozi,Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh
Archives of Neuroscience. 2018; In Press(In Press)
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397 Does motivational interviewing improve the weight management process in adolescents? Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Parisa Amiri,Elham Kazemian,Mohammad Masih Mansouri-Tehrani,Ahmad Khalili,Atieh Amouzegar
Systematic Reviews. 2018; 7(1)
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398 Anorexia nervosa in adolescents: evolution of weight history and impact of excess premorbid weight
Klara Meierer,Alexandre Hudon,Marc Sznajder,Marie-France Leduc,Danielle Taddeo,Olivier Jamoulle,Jean-Yves Frappier,Chantal Stheneur
European Journal of Pediatrics. 2018;
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399 Using Formative Research to Develop the Healthy Me, Healthy We Campaign
Heidi Hennink-Kaminski,Chioma Ihekweazu,Amber E. Vaughn,Dianne S. Ward
Social Marketing Quarterly. 2018; 24(3): 194
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400 Association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with Chinese infant growth
Weiwei Zhang,Fenghai Niu,Xueyun Ren
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2018;
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401 Criterion Validity and Sensitivity to Change of a Pediatric Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Scale in Adolescents
Allison Butcher,Laura S. Kabiri,Wayne Brewer,Alexis Ortiz
Childhood Obesity. 2018;
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402 Polymorphism of PPARG (P12A), APOA1 (G75A), and APOE (C112A and A158C) Genes in Children with Obesity and Arterial Hypertension: A Case-Control Study
Olga P. Kovtun,Margarita A. Ustyuzhanina
Current pediatrics. 2018; 17(4): 307
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403 Childhood Obesity Research: A Synthetic Scoping Review
Peter Kokol,Jernej Završnik,Helena Blazun Vosner
SSRN Electronic Journal. 2018;
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404 Piloting the FIT Game to Increase Physical Activity in One Sixth Grade Classroom (Preprint)
Damon Joyner,Heidi Wengreen,Sheryl Aguilar,Gregory Madden
JMIR Serious Games. 2018;
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405 Effect of an Education Program on Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes toward Nutrition, Diet Quality, Lifestyle, and Body Composition in Polish Teenagers. The ABC of Healthy Eating Project: Design, Protocol, and Methodology
Jadwiga Hamulka,Lidia Wadolowska,Monika Hoffmann,Joanna Kowalkowska,Krystyna Gutkowska
Nutrients. 2018; 10(10): 1439
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406 Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on current treatment approach and gene therapy as potential intervention
Sin Yee Tan,Joyce Ling Mei Wong,Yan Jinn Sim,Su Sie Wong,Safa Abdelgadir Mohamed Elhassan,Sean Hong Tan,Grace Pei Ling Lim,Nicole Wuen Rong Tay,Naveenya Chetty Annan,Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra,Mayuren Candasamy
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2018;
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407 Understanding High Incidence of Severe Obesity and Very Low Food Security in Food Pantry Clients: Implications For Social Work
Michelle L. Kaiser,Anne Cafer
Social Work in Public Health. 2018; : 1
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408 Obesity linking to hepatocellular carcinoma: A global view
Lu Gan,Zhenjiang Liu,Chao Sun
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 2018; 1869(2): 97
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409 ACE, APOA5, and MTP Gene Polymorphisms Analysis in Relation to Triglyceride and Insulin Levels in Pediatric Patients
Lilia Carranza-González,Rafael B.R. León-Cachón,María Antonia González-Zavala,Clara Ríos-Ibarra,Jesús Morlett-Chávez,Celia Sánchez-Domínguez,Ana Cepeda-Nieto,Mauricio Salinas-Santander
Archives of Medical Research. 2018;
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410 Impact of Diets Rich in Whole Grains and Fruits and Vegetables on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Clinical Feeding Trial
Somaye Fatahi,Elnaz Daneshzad,Hamed Kord-Varkaneh,Nick Bellissimo,Neil R. Brett,Leila Azadbakht
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2018; : 1
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411 Association between dental hygiene, gingivitis and overweight or the risk of overweight in primary teeth of 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers in México
N Patiño-Marín,NV Zavala-Alonso,GA Martínez-Castañón,JA Alegría-Torres,CE Medina-Solís,MA Laredo-Naranjo,JE Orellana-Centeno,O Lemus-Rojero
International Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2018;
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412 Health-related quality-of-life model in adolescents with different body composition
Karina Franco-Paredes,Felipe J. Díaz-Reséndiz,Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen,Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 2018;
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413 Social vulnerabilities as determinants of overweight in 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Spanish children
Isabel Iguacel,Juan M Fernández-Alvira,Idoia Labayen,Luis A Moreno,María Pilar Samper,Gerardo Rodríguez
European Journal of Public Health. 2018; 28(2): 289
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414 Smoking habit from the paternal line and grand-child’s overweight or obesity status in early childhood: prospective findings from the lifeways cross-generation cohort study
Cilia Mejia-Lancheros,John Mehegan,Celine M. Murrin,Cecily C. Kelleher
International Journal of Obesity. 2018;
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415 Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents
Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva,Rosemeire Leovigildo Fiaccone,Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição-Machado,Ana Santos Ruiz,Maurício Lima Barreto,Mônica Leila Portela Santana
Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português). 2018; 94(2): 155
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416 The association of air pollution with body mass index: evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” birth cohort
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International Journal of Obesity. 2018;
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417 The prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity among students in Qatar
M. Al-Thani,A. Al-Thani,S. Alyafei,W. Al-Chetachi,S.E. Khalifa,A. Ahmed,A. Ahmad,B. Vinodson,H. Akram
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418 Peripheral Blood Cells, a Transcriptomic Tool in Nutrigenomic and Obesity Studies: Current State of the Art
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Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2018;
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419 Mother’s obesity and high child’s waist circumference are predictive factors of severe child’s obesity: an observational study in French Guiana
Falucar Njuieyon,Emma Cuadro-Alvarez,Elise Martin,Noémie Lachaume,Yajaira Mrsic,Fanny Henaff,Chimène Maniassom,Antoine Defo,Narcisse Elenga
BMC Pediatrics. 2018; 18(1)
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420 Appendicular fracture epidemiology of children and adolescents: a 10-year case review in Western Australia (2005 to 2015)
Mark Jenkins,Sophia Nimphius,Nicolas H. Hart,Paola Chivers,Timo Rantalainen,Kristina Rueter,Meredith L. Borland,Fleur McIntyre,Katherine Stannage,Aris Siafarikas
Archives of Osteoporosis. 2018; 13(1)
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421 Theoretical frameworks informing family-based child and adolescent obesity interventions: A qualitative meta-synthesis
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422 Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity
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423 Determining Barriers to Use of Edible School Gardens in Illinois
Lucy Loftus,Aslihan D. Spaulding,Richard Steffen,Dave Kopsell,Nweze Nnakwe
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2017; 36(7): 507
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424 Executive Functions and Dietary Behaviors in School-Aged Children
Christine A. Limbers,Kaitlyn Egan,Adelyn Cohen
International Journal of School Health. 2017; In Press(In Press)
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425 Do mothers affect daughter’s behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother–daughter dyads
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Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2017; : 1
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426 Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia
M. Almughamisi,T. George,S. Harding
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2017; 76(OCE4)
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427 Gut Microbiota-Dependent Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction in Western Diet-Induced Obese Mice
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Frontiers in Physiology. 2017; 8
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428 Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time
R. A. Lima,K. A. Pfeiffer,A. Bugge,N. C. Møller,L. B. Andersen,D. F. Stodden
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2017;
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429 Precocious obesity predisposes the development of more severe cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in young adult mice
Rosemara S. Ribeiro,Clevia S. Passos,Antônio S. Novaes,Edgar Maquigussa,Maria A. Glória,Iria Visoná,Olinda Ykuta,Lila M. Oyama,Mirian A. Boim,Partha Mukhopadhyay
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(3): e0174721
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430 Maternal perception of childrenæs nutritional status in the Federal District, Brazil
Jéssica Pedroso,Natacha Toral,Muriel Bauermann Gubert,Andrea S. Wiley
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(4): e0176344
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431 Prevalence of adolescent obesity at a high school in the City of Tshwane
Nomusa A. Ngwenya,Tendani S. Ramukumba
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432 Factors Associated with School Lunch Consumption: Reverse Recess and School “Brunch”
Leah Elizabeth Chapman,Juliana Cohen,Melanie Canterberry,Thomas W. Carton
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2017;
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433 Family influence on the consumption of sugary drinks by children under two years old
Patricia Constante Jaime,Rogério Ruscitto do Prado,Deborah Carvalho Malta
Revista de Saúde Pública. 2017; 51(suppl 1)
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434 Determinants of Advanced Bone Age in Childhood Obesity?
Cornelis J. de Groot,Adriaan van den Berg,Bart E.P.B. Ballieux,Herman M. Kroon,Edmond H.H.M. Rings,Jan M. Wit,Erica L.T. van den Akker
Hormone Research in Paediatrics. 2017; : 254
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435 Implicações da pouca preocupação e percepção familiar no sobrepeso infantil no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil
Daniele Ferreira Barbosa dos Santos,Giovanna Chipon Strapasson,Samantha Daliana Pacheco Golin,Eliane Carneiro Gomes,Grace Maria Ferreira de Castro Wille,Sandra Mara Woranovicz Barreira
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436 Motivation for obesity prevention among adolescents in low-income communities in three U.S. states
Nancy Muturi,Tandalayo Kidd,Erika Lindshield,Kendra K. Kattelmann,Koushik Adhikari,Susan Zies
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437 Genetics of non-syndromic childhood obesity and the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies
Ana Carolina Proença da Fonseca,Claudio Mastronardi,Angad Johar,Mauricio Arcos-Burgos,Gilberto Paz-Filho
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 2017;
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438 How Accurately Do Both Parents and Health Professionals Assess Overweight in Children?
Ickpyo Hong,Cynthia Brown Dodds,Patty Coker-Bolt,Annie N. Simpson,Craig A. Velozo
Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2017; 29(3): 283
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439 Relationship between Consumer Behavior and Success of Urban Agriculture
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440 Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents
Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva,Rosemeire Leovigildo Fiaccone,Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição-Machado,Ana Santos Ruiz,Maurício Lima Barreto,Mônica Leila Portela Santana
Jornal de Pediatria. 2017;
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441 Body mass index trajectories in childhood is predictive of cardiovascular risk: results from the 23-year longitudinal Georgia Stress and Heart study
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International Journal of Obesity. 2017;
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442 High blood pressure and its relationship to adiposity in a school-aged population: body mass index vs waist circumference
William Rodrigues Tebar,Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias,Breno Quintella Farah,Edner Fernando Zanuto,Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei,Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro
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443 Parental Feeding Behaviors and Weight-Related Concerns in Children With Special Needs
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Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2017; 39(8): 1070
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444 Clustering of energy balance-related behaviours and parental education in European preschool children: the ToyBox study
María L. Miguel-Berges,Konstantina Zachari,Alba M. Santaliestra-Pasias,Theodora Mouratidou,Odysseas Androutsos,Violeta Iotova,Sonya Galcheva,Marieke De Craemer,Greet Cardon,Berthold Koletzko,Zbigniew Kulaga,Yannis Manios,Luis A. Moreno
British Journal of Nutrition. 2017; : 1
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445 Trimethylamine N-oxide Supplementation Abolishes the Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in Mice Fed a Western Diet
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Frontiers in Physiology. 2017; 8
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446 Attachment and eating: A meta-analytic review of the relevance of attachment for unhealthy and healthy eating behaviors in the general population
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447 Observation and assessment of the nutritional quality of ‘out of school’ foods popular with secondary school pupils at lunchtime
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BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1)
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Reetha Gopinath,Ambili Susan Jacob
Indian Journal of Child Health. 2017; 04(03): 310
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449 Association of a history of childhood-onset obesity and dieting with eating disorders
Hellas Cena,Fatima Cody Stanford,Luana Ochner,Maria Luisa Fonte,Ginevra Biino,Rachele De Giuseppe,Elsie Taveras,Madhusmita Misra
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450 A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity
Li Ming Wen,Chris Rissel,Louise A. Baur,Alison J. Hayes,Huilan Xu,Anna Whelan,Myna Hua,Miranda Shaw,Philayrath Phongsavan
BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1)
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451 Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study
Sarah Negash,Charles Agyemang,Tandi E Matsha,Nasheeta Peer,Rajiv T Erasmus,Andre P Kengne
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452 Obesity and Related Factors Among Children and Adolescents in Qatar
Mohammed Al-Thani,Al-Anoud Al-Thani,Walaa Al-Chetachi,Hammad Akram
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453 Effect of yoga practices on micronutrient absorption in urban residential school children
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454 A Systematic Review of Mediators of Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Screen Time in Adolescents: Implications for Future Research and Clinical Practice
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Nursing Outlook. 2017;
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455 Evaluation of Oxidant-antioxidant Status in Obese Children and Adolescents
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457 Adolescent boys with obesity: The lived experiences
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458 Child Obesity and Mental Health
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459 Obesity-promoting factors in Mexican children and adolescents: challenges and opportunities
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460 Waist circumference to height ratio predicts inflammatory risk in children
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464 Is the Failure to Lose Weight among the Obese Partly Because Obesity is an Addictive Disease?
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465 Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children
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