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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1452-1457

Prevalence of bronchial asthma and its associated risk factors in school-going adolescents in Tier-III North Indian City

1 Department of Pediatrics, Pt BD Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Pt BD Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Pt BD Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepak Nehra
277/1 Shastri Nagar Ladhot Road Rohtak, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_117_18

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Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and a major health problem not only in India but globally. Despite multifold increase in prevalence, there is paucity of data on bronchial asthma from non-metro cities. The objectives were to find prevalence of bronchial asthma and various risk factors that are associated in this age group and determine the extent of under diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 927 students from four government and three private schools was conducted using International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of bronchial asthma in adolescents was 13.1% (n = 121) of which 10.3% had episodes in the past 1 year. Prevalence was higher among males (8.77%) compared to females (4.33%). About 77.7% of total asthmatics were newly diagnosed cases. Prevalence was significantly higher among those having pets at home (P < 0.001), belonging to higher socioeconomic status (P = 0.021), using smoke-producing fuel at home (firewood/cow dung/kerosene; P = 0.032), and with history of smoking among family members (P = 0.035). Among current asthmatics, 72.3% reported cold/rhinitis (54.6% in March–May duration), 63.6% nocturnal dry cough, 50.5% sleep disturbances, and 38.9% speech disturbances in the past 1 year. Conclusion: The study shows higher prevalence of bronchial asthma in school-going population (11–16 years) compared to other parts of Northern India possibly attributable to rapid industrialization and post harvesting season when the study was carried out. Preventive interventions need to be taken to reduce disease burden at community level.

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