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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 292-295

An interesting case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following E. coli infection

1 Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Paediatrics, Government Villupuram Medical College, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Health Centre, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Prem Davis
Health Centre, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur - 610 005, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_402_18

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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS), characterized by multifocal white matter involvement with neurological deficits and accompanied by encephalopathy. ADEM is thought to be caused by autoimmune etiology. CNS autoantigens are produced by molecular mimicry triggered by an environmental stimulus, mostly infection (viral/bacterial) or post vaccination, in genetically susceptible individuals. ADEM is sometimes referred to as post/para-infectious or post-immunization ADEM. ADEM is characterized by multifocal neurological signs and occasionally it rapidly progresses to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment is based on intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone, which usually leads to a rapid improvement. Recently, the use of intravenous immunoglobulins and plasma exchange (PLEX) has also been suggested. We report a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for urinary tract infection but developed neurological complications which was treated successfully.

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