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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-43

Prevalence and risk factors of anemia among pregnant women attending a public-sector hospital in Bangalore, South India

1 Indian Institute of Public Health-Hyderabad Bengaluru Campus, Public Health Foundation of India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, JN Medical College, Belgavi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anita Nath
Indian Institute of Public Health-Hyderabad Bengaluru Campus, Public Health Foundation of India, Hyderabad, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_265_18

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Background: Anemia affects almost two-thirds of pregnant women in developing countries and contributes to maternal mortality and low birthweight. According to the National Family Health Survey-4 reports, maternal anemia continues to be a public health problem. Objective: To study the prevalence of anemia and its risk factors among pregnant women attending a public-sector hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was nested within an ongoing cohort study “ÇASCADE” which is exploring the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychological distress on infant development in Bangalore. The respondents were enrolled from the antenatal clinic at Jayanagar General Hospital, which is a sub-district hospital. A total of 280 women who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were enrolled. Results: The prevalence of anemia was observed to be 33.9%; proportion of mild and moderate anemia was almost similar (48.4 and 49.5%). The mean hemoglobin level of all the participants was 11.33 ± 1.460 g/dl. The mean hemoglobin level concentration was high during early gestation with a slight decrease by 21–24 weeks. Prenatal depression but not anxiety appeared to be a strong predictor of anemia on bivariate as well as multivariate analysis. No association was observed with socio-demographic and obstetric variables. Conclusion: The burden of maternal anemia was considerably high in the study population. Although iron-folic acid supplementation is available under the national health program to address this issue, it is important to consider and address other risk factors when designing and implementing target interventions for anemia control in selected populations.

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