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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 3076-3081

Study to evaluate the etiology of iron deficiency anemia at a teaching hospital in northeastern part of India


1 Department of General Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anju Bharti
Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_3_20

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Introduction: The causes of iron deficiency may be either due to excessive loss or, less frequently, decrease absorption. Data related to etiology are not available from this part of the country. Objective: A study to evaluate the etiology of iron-deficiency anemia at a teaching hospital in the northeastern part of India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cases of iron-deficiency anemia were selected from the OPD and indoor, after taking proper written consent. Iron-deficiency anemia was diagnosed by sending the complete hematological investigations. Other specific investigations including imaging were done in selected patients as per indications. Results: A total of 102 patients of iron-deficiency anemia were included in the study. The age of the selected population was between 18 and 80 years. 37.3% were male and 62.7% were female patients. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in 56, out of these, 9.7% had antral gastritis and 2.9% had a duodenal ulcer. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in 30 patients and out of these seven patients had hemorrhoids, one patient had multiple ulcers in the colon, one had ulcers in the sigmoid colon, and one had ulceroproliferative mass in the transverse colon. Biopsy through the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed chronic duodenitis in three patients (2.9%), carcinoma stomach in one (0.98%), and periampullary carcinoma in one (0.98%). Biopsy after lower gastrointestinal endoscopy showed one case each of carcinoma colon, ulcerative colitis, nonspecific colitis, and nonspecific enteritis. Conclusion: Diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia is not sufficient without the diagnosis of underlying etiology. Special concern will be taken to gastrointestinal malignancies like colorectal cancers in which iron-deficiency anemia may be the only manifestation and diagnosis that can be missed if we do not investigate properly.


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