Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 1465
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
EDITORIAL
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 3169-3175  

Community-based palliative care during the COVID 19 pandemic


1 Department of Palliative Care and Psycho-Oncology, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Academy of Family Physicians of India, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Palliative Medicine and Supportive Care, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission10-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance12-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shrikant Atreya
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Department of Palliative Care and Psychooncology, Tata Medical Center, 14 MAR (E-W), New Town, Rajarhat, Kolkata, West Bengal - 700160
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1144_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Novel Coronavirus (COVID 19) has usurped human peace and mobility. Since December 2019, the virus has claimed the lives of 87,816 people across the globe as of April 9, 2020 with India reporting a high case fatality of 3.4%. Among the vulnerable population, elderly people, and patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic life-threatening illnesses, such as COPD and advanced malignancies are susceptible to COVID-19 infection and may have poor clinical outcomes. Considering the imbalance in demand and supply of healthcare resources, initiating palliative care will be essential to alleviate the suffering of such patients. The current paper deliberates on the following aspects of palliative care delivery in the community; the need for palliative care in a pandemic crisis, the role of telemedicine in palliative care delivery in the community, the vital role of a family physician in providing primary palliative care in the community and a “wholistic” community palliative care package to serve the needy in the community.

Keywords: Community based palliative care, COVID 19, primary palliative care


How to cite this article:
Atreya S, Kumar R, Salins N. Community-based palliative care during the COVID 19 pandemic. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:3169-75

How to cite this URL:
Atreya S, Kumar R, Salins N. Community-based palliative care during the COVID 19 pandemic. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 5];9:3169-75. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/7/3169/290746




  Introduction Top


December 2019 evidenced the beginning of a global deluge, with a series of cases of novel virus causing respiratory tract infections in humans in Wuhan, Hubei province of China which eventually turned into a global pandemic.[1] On Jan 30, 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.[2]

The novel virus was named “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2)” and was first isolated on 7 January 2020.[2] Patients who are asymptomatic at the outset may develop mild symptoms such as upper respiratory symptoms which may progress to pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death.[3] SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Beta coronavirus genera,[4] an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that is initially transmitted[4],[5] from animal to human and later human-to-human transmission occurs with a rapid spread among the contact population.[6] Genetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed SARS-CoV-2 to be most closely related to bat coronavirus termed Bat CoV RaTG13, indicating bats as the likely origin.[7] The glycosylated cell surface protein of the virus contains two functional domains (S1 and S2); S1 domain strongly binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptor thus initiating the cell surface adhesion and the S2 domain facilitates fusion of the viral cell membrane with the host cell required for cellular infiltration.[8],[9] Further to this, the lungs and the virus are rich in enzyme “furin”, a protein convertase responsible to cellular cleavage.[9],[10]

The total confirmed cases of coronavirus disease globally until April 9, 2020 are 1.48 million with a mortality of 87,816 with India alone reporting 5736 and 166 confirmed cases and deaths, respectively.[11] A steep rise in the number of COVID positive cases are seen after 50 years of age with the highest reporting of cases (30.4%) in the age range of 50-60 years followed by 25.5% cases in the age range of 60-70 years.[12] India has reported a case fatality rate of 3.4%.[11]


  Vulnerable Population Top


With improvements in healthcare, the elderly population is surviving longer which makes them highly susceptible to COVID infection and resultant mortality. With the rising trends in the nuclear families in the country, the elderly population has to depend on external support system such as a paid caregiver or nursing home facilities, which increases their susceptibility to infection. With the implementation of lockdown, patients face challenges in seeking healthcare and transportation to healthcare facilities.[13] Elderly patients also suffer from multiple comorbidities such as diabetes, COPD, and other life-limiting lung and cardiovascular diseases. It can have a deleterious effect on the already compromised immune system increasing their susceptibility to infection and resultant mortality.[14] Previous studies have demonstrated a 3.4 fold rise in the risk of developing severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in H7N9 patients with pre-existing comorbidities.[15] Patients with Covid-19 are highly susceptible to respiratory failure and death.[16],[17] Diabetes is one of the common comorbidities seen in the elderly. In a study at Wuhan, China, of the 41 patients, 32% patients had comorbidities and 20% of them had diabetes.[17] Studies have shown high levels of ACE2 in the islets cells of the pancreas predisposing them to COVID 19 adhesion and attack.[18] Viral infection can lead to wide fluctuation in the blood glucose level in diabetic patients with resultant poor recovery and detrimental prognosis.[19] Higher expression of ACE2 in patients with hypertension and CVD has been postulated to enhance susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 which can portend a poor prognosis and recovery from a heart transplant.[20] There is a lack of formal treatment guidelines at this time. Cancer and its treatment can make the patients susceptible to SARI following COVID 19 infection due to poor immunity in these sets of patients. Studies have shown a case fatality rate of 5.6% as compared to the general population where the case fatality rate is 2.3%.[21] Patients with lung cancer, those with poor baseline lung function, and immunosuppressive chemotherapy are more prone to hypoxia and tend to deteriorate faster.[22] Patients with debilitating chronic lung diseases may present with hypoxemia secondary to COVID infection and may have poor clinical outcomes.[23] Overcrowding is a major challenge in many slums/remand homes/home for orphans or senior citizens. People living in such environment are highly susceptible to infection as it is challenging to follow the social distancing norm or self-isolation. This is further exacerbated by inequities in health care-seeking behavior and healthcare service delivery for such population. Handwashing and hygiene are reduced because of minimal access to soap, water, disinfectants, and bathrooms. In addition, access to basic essential commodities such as food is scarce due to limited availability and accessibility.[24]

Problem statement

Although measures were implemented to identify suspect carriers at the port of entry, mathematical models have shown to delay the epidemic by a maximum of 3 days and not weeks.[25] There is a high likelihood of missing more than 50% of the infected travelers on account of being asymptomatic and being unaware of exposure, emphasizing the need for post-travel symptom tracking.[26] Thus, accounting for such fallacies at screening, as a measure to mitigate the crisis, the Indian government announced a countrywide lockdown for three weeks starting at midnight on 24 March to slow the spread of COVID-19 as the number of people testing positive in the country reached 563 and mathematical models suggest a lockdown of 49 days to reduce the case numbers below 10.[27] However, this may pose a great challenge to the national economy.[28]

The health care institutions in the country have been gearing up to battle the situation by increasing the production of personal protective equipment and ventilators in order to care for patients with severe respiratory illnesses, however, the supply may not be commensurate with the rising demand. It will thus be mandated to triage patients where some patients with respiratory distress may need aggressive intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU), while a few with multi-organ failure or coexisting comorbidity might not benefit from aggressive measures[29] and will need palliative care and symptom management to alleviate physical, psychosocial and spiritual suffering.

Tele-palliative care

The pandemic has created an unprecedented shift in the healthcare delivery for patients requiring palliative care. In the pretext to lessen the exposure of both patients and healthcare workers and the challenges associated with travel to health care facility in view of the lockdown, many institutions are shifting their focus from face to face consultation to teleconsultation.[30]

Family physicians play a vital role in the continuum of care for patients in the community and help patients and families navigate through the journey of chronic life-threatening disease. The proximity of family physicians and accessibility to care raise the importance of family physicians in community-based care. The family physicians are in a better position to provide home-based care, counsel the patient/family through the difficult decision making in the pandemic, and support families in the bereavement phase. Family physicians can be an interface between patients in the community and palliative care specialists in the hospital.

[Table 1][31] depicts the triage model that can be used for the liaison primary palliative care. The family physician could obtain a thorough history and do a physical examination and the trio (family physician, palliative care physician, and palliative care nurse) could determine the need for a patient to be brought in for a face to face consultation to the hospital.
Table 1: Triage model for palliative care consultation

Click here to view


For patients who have mild to moderate symptoms, who have developed new symptoms that warrant physical examination and/or need a change of prescription, it will be prudent to liaise with family physician who could examine the patient and in consultation with palliative care team could provide the prescription.

Patients who have mild symptoms/asymptomatic or need a titration in the existing doses can continue to be supported over teleconsultation by the palliative care team. It is essential to document the discussion and record of the same be retained with the palliative care team.


  Symptom Management and Palliative Care Top


Symptom management

Breathlessness

Patients with COVID infection may present with severe respiratory distress that may often be exacerbated in co-existing chronic lung disorders and malignancy involving the lung. In some cases, the respiratory distress may be refractory to conventional medical management or oxygen therapy.[3],[32] The intensity of breathlessness can be assessed using a numerical rating scale such as dyspnoea numerical rating scale (score of 0-10; with 0 being no dyspnoea, 1-4 being mild dyspnoea, 5-6 being moderate dyspnoea and 7-10 being severe dyspnoea.[33] The experience of breathlessness is also influenced by emotional, environmental, cultural and social factors, and optimal management requires a holistic approach [Table 2].
Table 2: Symptom management in a community-based palliative care

Click here to view


Cough

Cough in acute viral infection could be attributed to inflammation, epithelial damage, mucus impaction, and neuromodulatory changes.[34] There is limited knowledge in the management of cough. Because of concurrent breathlessness, opioids may also help in alleviating cough.[35] For management please refer to [Table 2].

Delirium

Delirium in common in medical illness and almost universal in last days or hours of life. There could be fluctuation in the levels of sensorium and patients often manifest with hypoactive or mixed delirium.[36] Delirium could be attributed to sepsis, metabolic derangement, hypoxia, use of certain medications such as opioids and terminal disease.[37] For management please refer to [Table 2].

Pain

Patients may have comorbid conditions such as metastatic cancer, age-related degenerative changes such as osteoarthritis or acute or chronic cough which makes them susceptible to pain. Pain can aggravate physical and psychological distress and portend a poor quality of life. Basic assessment tools such as numerical rating scale can help is assessing the intensity of pain. A holistic approach is necessary to alleviate pain and suffering associated with it [Table 2].

Psychological suffering

Feelings of grief, sadness, despair, fear, anxiety, stigma, and loneliness are common emotional response in a pandemic crisis.[47] Some patients cope effectively and the underlying mechanism for attainment of a degree of peace include good communication and trust among patient, family, and clinical team, the ability to share fears and concerns, as well as meticulous attention to physical comfort and psychological and spiritual concerns.[48]

Thus, timely identification, assessment, and management is key to successful alleviation of psychological symptoms. Family physicians must be well equipped with tools for identifying and assessing patients with psychological concern and adequately trained in managing the concerns using pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. Benzodiazepines, antipsychotic, and antidepressants must be made a part of essential and emergency drugs.

Spiritual suffering

Spirituality is the aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred.[49] Spirituality may influence the way patients cope with the disease and the situation where in it is essential to identify spiritual distress and assess spirituality using standardized tools and find interventions to alleviate spiritual distress.[50] Resolution of spiritual concerns is not about meeting needs but in being sensitive to the concerns, giving the time and space to patient to explore their anxieties about life in the present crisis, death and their perceptions about the causation of their illness and their desire to be at peace with oneself, the moment, the crisis or the deity.

Communication

In view of the present crisis, it may be possible to have a family tele-meeting, however, one must ensure privacy and confidentiality of the information shared in the meeting. Most palliative care patients must have had a discussion with the palliative care team with documented evidence that may aid in the discussion. During the meeting following points should be addressed;[51]

  1. Chronic life-threatening illnesses refractory to disease directed treatment that may not benefit from intensive care management or disease directed treatment.
  2. Elderly population with comorbidities who may not benefit from life support.
  3. Symptom management as an alternative to intensive care treatment to alleviate suffering including a peaceful and dignified death.
  4. Conflict resolution between family and physician and between family members.
  5. The details of the communication are best documented by the primary physician and signed by the healthcare professionals involved in the discussion and patient and family members. Patient's condition must be communicated to the patient and family in a compassionate manner and the information provided must be clear and the physician must ensure that all the concerns are addressed. [Table 3] provides some do's and don't's of communication.
Table 3: Useful tips for communication

Click here to view


Discussion about goals of care and advance care planning

It is important that goals of care and futility of intensive care management be discussed with patients who have a chronic life-threatening illness as this may be relevant in COVID 19 pandemic where ICU care may be restrictive due to limitations in resources.[52],[53] Of relevance in this pandemic would be documenting the goals of care including place and extent of care and having a documentation of the same for every patient with chronic life threatening illness[54] This reduces the likelihood of emergency visits or hospital admissions including inappropriate interventions, ensure assessment of meaningful outcomes, and reduce psychological morbidity of bereaved family.[55],[56],[57]

Bereavement and grief support

Death is the only predictable event in an otherwise unpredictable human journey. As a physician, we have a broader responsibility at not only providing physical care to patients but also to address the bereavement needs of dying patients and family. A stronger patient-perceived relationship with a physician is associated with improved caregiver bereavement adjustment as caregivers have a feeling of being heard and supported.[58] A strong alliance between physician and caregiver can be cultivated by a combination of clear communication, respecting caregiver values and preference; providing empathic and emotional support; helping caregivers anticipate and prepare for the patient's death, and by attending to caregiver's coping, stress, and anticipatory grief.[59],[60]


  Conclusion Top


Patients with chronic life-threatening illnesses and concomitant COVID 19 infection have equal rights to adequate symptom control and a dignified life. There is thus a need for a concerted effort by the palliative care team and family physician to ensure a seamless palliative care delivery to such patients in the community. A liaison primary palliative care model with the help of the family physician will help serve large majority of the patients in the community who are unable to travel to the hospital because of the present crisis and ensure that the patient continues to receive quality care seamlessly.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol2020;92:401-2.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
WHO Emergency Committee. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID 19). Geneva: WHO, 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/news room/detail/30 01 2020 statement on the second meeting of the international healthregulations (2005) emergency committee regarding the outbreakof novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV).  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H,et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study [published correction appears in Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Apr;8(4):e26]. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:475-481. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X,et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modelling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci. China Life Sci2020;63:457-60.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J,et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y,et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-1207. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W,et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature2020;579:270-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC. Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science (N.Y.) 2005;309:1864-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E. The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Antivir Res2020;176:104742.doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral. 2020.104742.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Follis KE, York J, Nunberg JH. Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion entry. Virology 2006;350:358-69.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Roser M, Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)-”Research and Statistics. 2020. Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus.[Last accessed on 2020 Apr 10].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gupta N, Praharaj I, Bhatnagar T, Thangaraj JWV, Giri S, Chauhan H,et al. Severe acute respiratory illness surveillance for coronavirus disease 2019, India, 2020. Indian J Med Res2020;151:236-40.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
13.
Lloyd-Sherlock P, Ebrahim S, Geffen L, McKee M. Bearing the brunt of covid-19: Older people in low and middle income countries.BMJ2020;368:m1052.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Driggin E, Madhavan MV, Bikdeli B, et al. Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;75:2352-2371. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.031  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Gao HN, Lu HZ, Cao B, Du B, Shang H, Gan JH,et al. Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. N Engl J Med2013;368:2277-85.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y,et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: Adescriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J,et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 7]. JAMA. 2020;323:1061-1069. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Guo W, Li M, Dong Y, et al. Diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 31]. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020;e3319. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3319.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Yang JK, Linn SS, Ji XJ, Guo LM. Binding of SARS coronavirus to its receptors damages islets and causes acute diabetes. ActaDiabetol2010;47:193-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol 2020;17:259-60.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 24].JAMA2020. doi: 10.1001/jama. 2020.2648.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Zhang L, Zhu F, Xie L, Wang C, Wang J, Chen R, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients: A retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 26]. Ann Oncol2020:S0923-7534 (20) 36383-3. doi: 10.1016/j.annonc. 2020.03.296.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Ren YH, Wang SY, Liu M, Guo YM, Dai HP. When COVID-19 encounters interstitial lung disease: Challenges and management. ZhonghuaJie He He Hu Xi ZaZhi2020;43:E039.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Barnagarwala T. Case in a Mumbai slum: Officials hit tracking hurdle. MSN News. 21 March 2020. Available from: https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/other/case-in-a-mumbai-slum-officials-hittracking-hurdle/ar-BB11tK6Y.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Mandal S, Bhatnagar T, Arinaminpathy N, Agarwal A, Chowdhury A, Murhekar M, etal. Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach. Indian J Med Res 2020;151:190-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
26.
Gostic K, Gomez ACR, Mummah RO, Kucharski AJ, Lloyd-Smith JO. Estimated effectiveness of traveller screening to prevent international spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). medRxiv 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.01.28.20019224.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Singh R, Adhikari R. Age-structured impact of social distancing on the COVID-19 epidemic in India. arXiv. 2020 Mar 26 preprint arXiv:2003.12055. [Google Scholar].  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Karnon J. A simple decision analysis of a mandatory lockdown response to the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 5]. Appl Health Econ Health Policy2020:10.1007/s40258-020-00581-w. doi: 10.1007/s40258-020-00581-w.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet2020;395:931-4.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Telemedicine Practice Guidelines Enabling Registered Medical Practitioners to Provide Healthcare Using Telemedicine. MCI 211 (2)/2019 (Ethics)/201858. https://www.mciindia.org/CMS/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Public_Notice_for_TMG_Website_Notice-merged.pdf. dated 25.03.2020.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Tran DL, Lai SR, Salah RY, Wong AY, Bryon JN, McKenna MC,et al. Rapid de-escalation and triaging patients in community-based palliative care [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 7].J Pain Symptom Manage2020:S0885-3924 (20) 30193-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman. 2020.03.040.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Guan W-J, Ni Z-Y, Hu Y, Liang W-H, Ou C-Q, He J-X, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. NEngl JMed 2020;382:1708-20.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Wysham NG, Miriovsky BJ, Currow DC, Herndon JE 2nd, Samsa GP, Wilcock A, et al. Practical dyspnea assessment: Relationship between the 0-10 numerical rating scale and the four-level categorical verbal descriptor scale of dyspnea intensity. J Pain Symptom Manage2015;50:480-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Atkinson SK, Sadofsky LR, Morice AH. How does rhinovirus cause the common cold cough? BMJ Open Respir Res2016;3:e000118.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Hill AT, Gold PM, El Solh AA, Metlay JP, Ireland B, Irwin RS, et al. Adult outpatients with acute cough due to suspected pneumonia or influenza: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest 2019;155:155-67.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Girard TD, Thompson JL, Pandharipande PP, Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Patel MB, et al. Clinical phenotypes of delirium during critical illness and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment: Aprospective cohort study. Lancet Respir Med2018;6:213-22.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Inouye SK. Delirium in older persons. N EnglJMed2006;354:1157-65.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Higginson IJ, Bausewein C, Reilly CC, Gao W, Gysels M, Dzingina M, et al. An integrated palliative and respiratory care service for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness: Arandomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2014;2:979-87.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Gysels M, Reilly CC, Jolley CJ, Pannell C, Spoorendonk F, Bellas H, et al. How does a new breathlessness support service affect patients? EurRespir J 2015;46:1515-8.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Rocker GM, Simpson AC, Horton R, Sinuff T, Demmons J, MAHSR MDM,et al. Opioid therapy for refractory dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: patients’ experiences and outcomes. CMAJ Open. 2013;1:E27-E36. Published 2013 Jan 24. doi:10.9778/cmajo.20120031.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Mitchell SAC, Garrod R, Clark L, Douiri A, Parker SM, Ellis J, et al. Physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy intervention for patients with refractory chronic cough: Amulticentre randomised control trial. Thorax 2017;72:129-36.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
FDA. Safety alerts for human medical products (Tramadol hydrochloride). 2010. Available from: www.fda.gov/safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts (archived).  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Network. SIG. Risk reduction and Management of delirium 2019. Available from: https://www.sign.ac.uk/sign-157-delirium.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Hajiesmaeili MR, Safari S. Pain management in the intensive care unit: do we need special protocols? Anesth Pain Med2012;1:237-8.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Day M. Covid-19: ibuprofen should not be used for managing symptoms, say doctors and scientists. BMJ. 2020;368:m1086. [Published 2020 Mar 17]. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1086.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Naessens K, Bell R. Oral tapentadol for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015;5:CD009923. Available from: www.thecochranelibrary.com.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Mithrason AT, Parasuraman G, Iyer RH, Vardarajan S. Psychosocial problems and needs of patients in palliative care center. Int J Community Med Public Health 2018;5:1385-91.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Almada AL, Casquinha P, Cotovio V, Heitor Dos Santos MJ, Caixeiro A. The potential role of psychosocial rehabilitation in palliative care. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2018;48:311-7.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Puchalski CM, Ferrell B, Virani R, Otis-Green S, Baird P, Bull J, et al. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: The report of the consensus conference. J Palliat Med 2009:12:885-904.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Borneman T, Ferrell B, Puchalski CM. Evaluation of the FICA tool for spiritual assessment. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;40:163-73.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Machare Delgado E, Callahan A, Paganelli G, Reville B, Parks SM, Marik PE. Multidisciplinary family meetings in the ICU facilitate end-of-life decision making. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2009;26(4):295-302. doi:10.1177/1049909109333934.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
You JJ, Fowler RA, Heyland DK. Just ask: Discussing goals of care with patients in hospital with serious illness. CMAJ2014;186:425-32.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Borasio GD, Gamondi C, Obrist M, Jox R. COVID-19: Decision making and palliative care. Swiss Med Wkly2020;150:13-4.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Sudore RL, Fried TR. Redefining the “planning” in advance care planning: preparing for end-of-life decision making. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:256-61.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Bischoff KE, Sudore R, Miao YH, Boscardin WJ, Smith AK. Advance care planning and the quality of end-of-life care in older adults. J Am GeriatrSoc 2013;61:209-14.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Detering KM, Hancock AD, Reade MC, Silvester W. The impact of advance care planning on end of life care in elderly patients: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010;340:c1345.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Allred DA, Frech TM, McComber C, Peterson K, Ortiz G, McNeill C,et al. Chronic Multiorganrare disease: The role of the nurse practitioner as a leader of the health care team. J Med Pract Manage 2017;32:413-6.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Trevino KM, Maciejewski PK, Epstein AS, Prigerson HG. The lasting impact of the therapeutic alliance: Patient-oncologist alliance as a predictor of caregiver bereavement adjustment. Cancer 2015;121:3534-42.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Falkenstrom F, Granstrom F, Holmqvist R. Therapeutic alliance predicts symptomatic improvement session by session. J CounsPsychol 2013;60:317-28.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Williams SW, Hanson LC, Boyd C, Green M, Goldmon M, Wright G, et al. Communication, decision making, and cancer: What African Americans want physicians to know. J Palliat Med2008;11:1221-6.  Back to cited text no. 60
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Our knowledge of Covid-19 is expanding and accelerating fast
Harish Gupta,Nitu Nigam,SudhirKumar Verma,Medhavi Gautam
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020; 9(10): 5419
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Holistic approach to patient care in COVID-19: Need of an hour
Rohit Kumar,SauravSekhar Paul,VedPrakash Meena,Pavan Tiwari,Sushma Bhatnagar,Anant Mohan,Naveet Wig
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2020; 9(10): 5423
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Vulnerable Popul...
   Symptom Manageme...
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1669    
    Printed29    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded201    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal