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 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 138-142  

Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers in Hail city


Department of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission01-Jul-2020
Date of Decision05-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jan-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Khalid O Alshammari
Department of Family Medicine, Hail City
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1322_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Children in schools are more prone to get injured during their activities. Awareness toward first aid is vital for teachers to provide solutions in case of the occurrence of accidents. Our work aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of first aid and the associated factors among male school teachers in Hail city. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based survey was performed among teachers in primary, middle, and secondary male schools in the Hail region, Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12 software, Continuous variables were presented as mean, and SD and inter-group differences were compared using t-test. Categorical variables showed as numbers and percentages. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 604 teachers were included in our sample; all completed an online structured questionnaire formed of 20 questions. The majority of participants were male teachers (80.96%). The teachers had a mean age of 39 ± 7.8 years old. Most of the teachers (90.9%) knew about first aids. More than one-half of teachers (58.28%) had not taken first aid training, and the majority of participants (87.9%) need to learn first aid principles. Age, sex, and marital status were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the knowledge of first aids. Most of our samples depend on media and social media to gain information regarding first aid principles. Conclusion: Our study concluded that the school teachers in Hail city had good knowledge and attitude about the first aid. However, more training workshops were recommended for improving the first aid practice of teachers.

Keywords: Attitude, first aid, knowledge, practice, school, teachers


How to cite this article:
Alshammari KO. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers in Hail city. J Family Med Prim Care 2021;10:138-42

How to cite this URL:
Alshammari KO. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers in Hail city. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Feb 25];10:138-42. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2021/10/1/138/307891




  Introduction Top


First aid is providing early and first care for injury or illness by the untrained or inexperienced person until medical treatment can be provided.[1] Injuries are the major causes of morbidity and death in the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries.[2]

Primary care physicians are not present at the schools. Rapid administration of first aid by school teachers may minimize morbidity and mortality of pupils attributed to injury-related problems, therefore, teachers should have adequate knowledge and practice in basic first aid skills.

First aid involves simple medical techniques that individually provide, this individual is either with or without a formal medical.[3] In 2020, Taklual et al. performed a study to investigate the associated factors of first aid knowledge, attitude, and practice among elementary school teachers in Ethiopia. They found that school teachers have low knowledge of first aid. Educational status, previous first aid training, service year, and information on first aid were the determinant of first aid knowledge.[4]

In Saudi Arabia, it was estimated that there were 30,263 cases of neck and back injuries, 41,561 fractures cases, 779 burn cases, and 467 asphyxia cases.[5],[6] Awareness toward first aid is important to provide solutions in case of occurrence of accidents, this can be performed by establishing training programs.[1] Life-threatening emergencies in schools include preexisting health problems, violence, injuries, and other unexpected events.[3] In Saudi Arabia, the main caregivers in school for children are teachers and they are their first-line protectors and the first individuals who respond to the emergencies of the students, so they should be able to deal with emergencies and disasters the students face.[7] Students in Hail spend a long time in school and they perform activities there, during the day several accidents may occur and may result in injuries. Teachers are responsible persons for children in school. No studies have been done before to explore knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers in Hail city, Saudi Arabia.

To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers in Hail city and to investigate its associated factors.


  Methodology Top


Study design

This is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based survey among teachers in primary, middle, and secondary male schools in the Hail region, Saudi Arabia. A 30- cluster survey methodology was approached.

Sample size and sampling technique

A two-stage random cluster sampling technique described by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied to choose 30 schools to proportionate to size to represent primary, middle, and secondary schools in Hail City.

Data collection tool

The data collection tool was validated before and used by Dr. Ibrahim Adel AlYahya.[8]

Study variables

Knowledge level, attitude, and practice were the outcome variables of interest. Sociodemographic variables of teachers and school-related characteristics were the independent variables that could influence the outcome variables.

Ethical consideration

All the required permissions were obtained from the ministry of education, and ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethics review Board, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Hail Region.

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed using STATA 12 software, continuous variables were presented as mean and standard deviation (SD), and inter-group differences were compared using t-test. Skewed numerical data were shown as median and average rank and between-group differences were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


Tests of correlations with age

Age was significantly associated with the knowledge regarding the compression of sounds to stop external bleeding with a P value 0.02, however, there was no correlation with other elements of knowledge [Figure 1].
Figure 1: First aid knowledge correlation with age

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Correlation with sex

Males had higher knowledge regarding the management of emergencies such as chemical contamination of eyes with P value 0.025, besides, to complete chocking with foreign bodies as males were significantly knowledgeable regarding pushing the upper part of the abdomen maneuver to expel foreign body with P value 0.002 [Figure 2].This study contain 604 participants, demograghic charechteristics were found in [Table 1]. Source of knowledge about first aid were reported in [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Source of first aid information based on gender

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Table 1: Demographic characteristic

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Figure 3: Pie chart showing sources of information about first aid

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Males also knew that removing remnants of poisons in children's mouths if ingested with P value 0.04, on the other hand, females had more knowledge regarding how to manage burns by pouring cold water on burned skin with P value 0.006; nonetheless females knew how to manage bone fractures with P value 0.013.

Female's source of knowledge was mainly social media and media when compared to males with P value 0.025.

Correlations with marital status

Marital status significantly correlated with knowledge regarding partial chocking as singles had the highest knowledge when compared to married and divorced with P value 0.009, while the married population had higher knowledge regarding chemical contamination of eyes to be washed by water after exposure with P value 0.011.

Correlations with first aid knowledge

Individuals who have previous knowledge about first aid were mostly trained before on first aid principles with P value 0.037, in addition to doing upper abdomen pushes in complete chocking with P value 0.045. Nonetheless, those who knew about first aid had more knowledge regarding electric shocks to stop electric source and call emergency with P value 0.008.

Correlation to first aid training

Individuals who had first aid training were more ready to offer immediate help P = 0.0001, knowledge regarding partial chocking P = 0.0001, and complete chocking P = 0.02. Regarding management of heat-stroke, insect bite, nasal bleeding wound bleeding, and dog bites those who had training were significantly knowledgeable than people who did not have the training with P values 0.02, 0.02, 0.04, 0.008, 0.016, and 0.003, respectively.

Correlations with the source of information

Most of our sample depend on media and social media to gain information regarding first aid principles as persons who depend on social media and media were significantly more knowledgeable regarding management of chemical contamination of eye 0.005, nasal bleeding 0.048, skin burns 0.011, complete chocking 0.02, to offer immediate help to those in need 0.001, to learn first aid principles 0.006, and to have training in first aid maneuvers 0.0001.


  Discussion Top


Children are more prone to get injured during their activities.[9],[10] It was mentioned that physical injuries of children represented 88% of injuries and 20% of them occurred during the school attendance.[11]

Most of the participant teachers (90.9%) in our study knew about first aids. AlYahya et al. (2019) conducted a study to assess the levels of knowledge of teachers in the Riyadh city related to basic first aid practices and its variables. They found that 60.1% of teachers had information about first aid practices which was less than our findings (90.9%).[8] Another study from Saudi Arabia reported that more than half of teachers 62.88% did not attend any training about first aid and 51.26% had poor knowledge, however, 95% had a positive attitude.[7] Another study demonstrated that there was an unsatisfactory level of first aid knowledge among primary school teachers.[10] A study from Al-Robaiaay showed that sports teachers had poor knowledge about first aid. In Madinah, 44.76% was the percentage of good first aid knowledge of overall school instructors. They also measured 60.55% of school instructors have a positive attitude toward first aid training.[12]

In the present study, age was found to be significantly correlated to knowledge regarding the compression of sounds to stop external bleeding with a P value 0.02. Similarly, it was reported that teachers older than 35 years had higher knowledge about first aid more than younger teachers.[13]

In agreement with the present study, it was reported that having previous first-aid training, source of first aid information, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive associations with the attitude towards first aid.[13]

A study from Egypt reported that the knowledge of primary school teachers about first aid was inadequate.[14] A study from Iraq reported that 95% of teachers had total fair knowledge and 5% had poor knowledge, whereas 93.4% showed a positive attitude.[15] A study from China found that the majority showed a positive attitude toward providing and learning first aid skills.[16]

An Indian study showed that 77.5% of government school teachers had an average level of knowledge toward first aid, whereas 12.5% and 10% had good and poor knowledge, respectively.[17] Another Indian study reported that 13% and 87% of school teachers in Mangalore had poor and moderate knowledge, respectively.[18] Another study found that 72.5% had good knowledge.[19]

In the present study, more than one-half of teachers (58.28%) had not taken first-aid training and the majority of participants (87.9%) need to learn first-aid principles. Similarly, it was reported that only 26.4% of teachers had attended first aid lectures and the majority of them had not attended the lectures.[8] Training is a factor that improves the level of knowledge, there was a significant association between first aid training and the level of knowledge.[20],[21] It was reported that the majority of primary school teachers (86%) did not attend any specific seminar related to first aid management of minor injuries.[9]

In our study, most of our samples depend on media and social media to gain information regarding first-aid principles. In agreement with our results, AlYahya et al. reported that most teachers reported a source of knowledge was social media (21.6%).[8] However, another study reported that the majority (74%) of teachers had their information about first aid through literatures such as magazines, health newspapers, health-related articles, and from relatives, friends, and health professionals.[9]


  Summary Top


Knowledge of first aid is critical for teachers to provide solutions in case of the occurrence of accidents. Our work aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of first aid and its associated factors among male school teachers in Hail city. Most of the teachers knew about the first aids. More than one-half of teachers had not taken first aid training, and the majority of participants need to learn first aid principles. Age, sex, and marital status were significantly associated with the knowledge of first aids. Most teachers depend on media and social media to gain information regarding first aid principles. Our study concluded that the school teachers in Hail city had good knowledge and attitude about the first aid. However, more training workshops were recommended for improving the first-aid practice of teachers.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Semwal J, Bakshi RK, Juyal R, Vyas S, Kandpal SD. Study of knowledge and attitudes to first aid among school children of Doiwalablock, Dehradun. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kyu HH, Pinho C, Wagner JA, Brown JC, Bertozzi-Villa A, Charlson FJ, et al.; Global Burden of Disease Pediatrics Collaboration. Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013: Findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study. JAMA Pediatr 2016;170:267-87.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Mobarak AS, Afifi RM, Qulali A. First aid knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in Saudi Arabia. Health 2015;7:1366.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Taklual W, Mekie M, Yenew C. Determinants of first aid knowledge and basic practice among elementary school teachers in Debre Tabor Town, Northcentral Ethiopia. Open Public Health J 2020;13:380-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kendrick D, Mulvaney CA, Ye L, Stevens T, Mytton JA, Stewart-Brown S. Parenting interventions for the prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;3:CD006020. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006020.pub3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Demographic Research Bulletin 2016; Statistics Library, General Authority of Statistics in Saudi Arabia. Available from: http://www.cdsi.gov.sa/ar/3465. [Last accessed on 2020 May 15].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Al-Kubaisy Y, Suwayyid WK, Al-Shakhs AA, Addar LM, Alshammeri MD, Ba MY, et al. Teachers' awareness regarding first-aid management and control of epistaxis inside schools in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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AlYahya IA, Almohsen HA, AlSaleem IA, Al-Hamid MM, Arafah AM, Al Turki YA, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers and administrators in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:684-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
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Masih S, Sharma RK, Kumar A. Knowledge and practice of primary school teachers about first aid management of selected minor injuries among children. Int J Med Public Health 2014;4:458-62.  Back to cited text no. 9
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Spinks AB, McClure RJ, Bain C, Macpherson AK. Quantifying the association between physical activity and injury in primary school-aged children. Pediatrics 2006;118:e43-50.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Al-Robaiaay YK. Knowledge of primary school teachers regarding first aid in Baghdad Al-Rusafa. Al-Kindy Col Med J 2013;9:54-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Ganfure G, Ameya G, Tamirat A, Lencha B, Bikila D. First aid knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PLoS One 2018;13:e0194263.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Al-Tameemi HMA, Khudair FW. Knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers toward first aid in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf City Int J Curr Res Acad Rev 2016;4:64-79.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Li F, Jiang F, Jin X, Qiu Y, Shen X. Pediatric first aid knowledge and attitudes among staff in the preschools of Shanghai, China. BMC Pediatr 2012;12:121.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Kaur N, Kaur M. A descriptive study to assess the level of knowledge regarding the first aid management among school teachers in selected schools of district Mohali, Punjab. J Health Med Inform 2017;8:1000288. doi: 10.4172/2157-7420.1000288.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Pandey R, Chauhan R, Dobhal S, Dabral S, Nathani S, Negi S, et al. First aid knowledge among health assigned teachers of primary schools. IJRMS 2017;5:1522-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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