Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

: 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 96--100

Seasonality of hepatitis: A review update

Auda Fares 
 Albert-Schlangen, Str.36 Bedburg, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Auda Fares
Albert Schlangen Str. 36, 50181 Bedburg

Background: Viral hepatitis is an infection that has been reported to be present throughout the year, but some particular months are associated with higher incidences. The primary objective was to review and report on the current knowledge and evidence that existed on seasonality of different type of acute viral hepatitis worldwide in order to develop recommendations for future research, prevention and control. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify all the primary reports and studies published during 1970-2013 on acute hepatitis A, B, C and E (AHA, AHB, AHC and AHE) in human subjects by searching PubMed, reference lists of major articles and correspondence with scientific experts. For each report or study included, the following information was extracted (as applicable to study): Location (country and setting), study population (number of cases, patients), seasonal or monthly rate and study duration. Results: There is no definite and consistent seasonal pattern has been observed on AHA; AHB; AHE and AHC, although evidence points towards spring and summer peak for hepatitis A, B, C and E. Multiple source of transmission such as; summer travel to an endemic area, swimming habits of the population in hot months, increase sexual contact, tattoo, poor hygiene and environmental sanitation and food habits (feco-oral transmission of viral hepatitis) probably exists and should be further investigated through analytical and epidemiological.

How to cite this article:
Fares A. Seasonality of hepatitis: A review update.J Family Med Prim Care 2015;4:96-100

How to cite this URL:
Fares A. Seasonality of hepatitis: A review update. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Jul 23 ];4:96-100
Available from:;year=2015;volume=4;issue=1;spage=96;epage=100;aulast=Fares;type=0